Macrolides


Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.
Related to Macrolides: clindamycin, Fluoroquinolones
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Macrolides

 

an extensive group of antibiotics that contain a polymerous lactone cycle.

All known macrolides are isolated from soil fungi of the genus Streptomyces. They are divided into two subgroups, according to their structure and physiological effect. The first subgroup (more than 30 antibiotics) includes lactones whose carbon skeleton consists of a fatty polyoxyacid that is saturated or that contains one or two double bonds with one or two hydroxyl groups bonded to the carbohydrate residues. The compounds of the subgroup (for example, pikromycin, methymycin, narbomycin, oleandomycin, erythromycin, lancamycin, magnamycin, carbomycin B, macrocin, and leukomycin A) are colorless crystals that are readily soluble in polar organic solvents, have weakly basic properties, and are active against most gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria (brucellae), rickettsiae, and, sometimes, cocci. Their mode of action consists in the suppression of protein synthesis in the cells of the microorganisms.

The second subgroup (about 30 antibiotics) consists of lactones whose carbon skeleton contains, in addition to hydroxyl groups, from four to seven conjugated double bonds. In most of the macrolides of this type (also called polyene antibiotics), one or two hydroxyl groups are bonded to amino sugar residues. The compounds of this group (Filipin, nystatin, amphotericin B, pimaricin, lagosin, and fungichromin, for example) are yellow crystals that decompose in light. They are active against fungi and yeasts but are only weakly bacteriostatic. Their mode of action consists in disruption of the functions of the cytoplasmic membranes, owing to the formation of molecular complexes with sterols in the membranes. The biosynthesis of macrolides by their producer-fungi follows the pattern of the biosynthesis of fatty acids.

REFERENCES

Khimiia antibiotikov, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1961.
Sazykin, Iu. O. Antibiotiki kak ingibitory biokhimicheskikh protsessov. Moscow, 1968.
Mekhanizm deistviia antibiotikov. Moscow, 1969. (Collection of articles; translated from English.)
Biogenesis of Antibiotic Substances. Prague, 1965.

E. P. SEREBRIAKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Macrolide group of antibiotics includes erythromycin, tylosin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and tilmicosin etc.
([dagger]) MIC ranges for macrolides were 16 to >64 [micro]g/mL for A2063G (n = 163) and A2064G (n = 10) and >64 [micro]g/mL for A2063C (n = 1).
We identified an A2063G point mutation in the sequence directly binding to macrolides in the 23S rRNA V domain of all 27 macrolide-resistant M.
M2 PHARMA-March 29, 2018-CARB-X Awards Macrolide Pharmaceuticals USD 6.8m to Develop Macrolide Antibiotics with Gram-Negative Activity
It is noteworthy that, despite a significant increase in macrolide resistance in some regions, which was a concern at the time the IDSA/ATS guidelines were developed, macrolides still play an important role in CAP therapy (in part because of their coverage of atypical respiratory pathogens).
Regarding macrolides, the isolation of resistant Campylobacter spp.
pneumoniae "high-level" (MIC [greater than or equal to] 16 ug/ml) macrolide resistance rates lower than 25% (Figure 3), which means that most clinicians should reconsider the use of macrolides as monotherapy in CAP.
Thirteen patients made full recovery, five of which were treated with a quinolone and macrolide, with the others having either a quinolone or macrolide as part of their treatment.
According to the company, solithromycin is a highly potent next-generation macrolide, the first fluoroketolide, which has potent activity against most macrolide-resistant strains.
In this study, the 39 (37.9%) [cMLS.sub.B] phenotype isolates prevailed over the five (4.9%) [iMLS.sub.B] phenotype and over the 12 (11.6%) [MS.sub.B] phenotype resistant to macrolides and type B streptogramins, which is consistent with other studies conducted in Brazil.