Macron, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric

Macron, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric,

1977–, French political leader and banker, president of France (2017–), b. Amiens, grad. Univ. of Paris Nanterre (2001), Paris Institute of Political Studies (2001), National School of Administration (2004). He worked for the French ministry of economy and finance (2004–8), then became an investment banker (2008–11) and managing partner (2011–12) at Rothschild & Cie. After working on François HollandeHollande, François Gérard Georges,
1954–, French lawyer and politician, president of France (2012–17), b. Rouen. He attended the elite National School of Administration (ENA) and Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po).
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's successful 2012 presidential campaign, Macron served as deputy chief of staff and an economic adviser (2012–14) to Hollande. As minister of the economy, industry, and digital data (2014–16), Macron promoted reforms intended to improve the economy and reduce the high unemployment rate; although enacted, the reforms met with backlash from left and right. As Hollande's public approval dwindled, Macron created (2016) a centrist political movement, La République en marche! [the republic on the move!] and then resigned to run for president. Macron won the first round (Apr., 2017) with 24% of the vote, and then easily defeated the National Front's Marine Le PenLe Pen, Marine
(Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen) , 1968–, French politician, daughter of Jean-Marie Le Pen. A lawyer, she was in private practice (1992–98) before becoming head of legal affairs (1998–2003) and deputy chairwoman (2003–11) of the National Front
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 in the runoff; he became the youngest person to serve as French president. His government's labor and tax law changes, intended to increase French competitiveness, contributed to antigovernment demonstrations over the cost of living beginning in late 2018, and led to government tax and wage concessions.