Macumba


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Macumba

While some fear its dark reputation, others take delight in dancing to the cult’s “rhythm of the saints,” the samba.

In its outward appearances and in some of its practices, Macumba (also known as Spiritism, Candomblé, and Umbanda) resembles Voodoo. Trance states among the practitioners are induced by dancing and drumming, and the ceremony climaxes with an animal sacrifice.

The ancient role of the shaman remains central to Macumba. He (it is most often a male) or she enters into a trance state and talks to the spirits in order to gain advice or aid for the supplicants. Before anyone can participate in a Macumba ceremony, he or she must undergo an initiation. The aspirants must enter a trance during the dancing and the drumming and allow a god to possess them. Once the possession has taken place, the shaman must determine which gods are in which initiate so that the correct rituals can be performed. The process is enhanced by the sacrifice of an animal and the smearing of its blood over the initiates. Once the initiates have been bloodied, they take an oath of loyalty to the cult. Later, when the trance state and the possessing spirit have left them, the aspirants, now members of the Macumba cult, usually have no memory of the ritual proceedings.

Macumba was born in the 1550s from a blending between the spirit worship of the African slaves brought to Brazil and the Roman Catholicism of the slaveholders. Although the captive slaves were forced to give token obeisance to an array of Christian saints and the God of their masters, the native priests soon realized how complementary the two faiths could be—especially since, unlike the slave owners in the United States, the Brazilians allowed the slaves to keep their drums. The Africans summoned their gods, the orishas, with the sound of their drums and the rhythm of their dancing. The African god Exu became Saint Anthony, Lemanja became Our Lady of the Glory, Oba became Saint Joan of Arc, Oxala became Jesus Christ, Oxum became Our Lady of the Conception, and so on. From the melding of the two religious faiths, the Africans created the samba, the rhythm of the saints, which has survived as an international dance favorite.

References in periodicals archive ?
Live Latin-Jazz-inspired music by local band Macumba. August 17.
Recria, amplia e recodifica alguns desses objetos, e se apropria de imagens banais de santos catolicos, entidades do candomble e macumba, personalidades do folclore, bichos, brinquedos e herois infantis, moldados em gesso, plastico ou borracha, atribuindo-lhes novos significados ao aloca-los em contextos paradoxais e bem humorados (Figura 2).
Nas proximidades da ruina de mineracao do Tanque Grande ha, inclusive, uma cachoeira identificada como "Cachoeira da Macumba".
Compensacion asociada a lo sensual o sexual que puede encontrar caminos mas poderosos si se recurre al espiritismo, ya sea para conjurar el mal de ojo, como en "Coco", o para utilizar los poderes rituales de la macumba, como en "Macapa".
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Reafirmo entonces, que la estructura arquitectonica de la casa-grande permitio un proceso monocultural esclavista, con diferencias de clase, una que trabajaba y otra que ostentaba el poder "los senores" los cuales desarrollaron un refinamiento erotico, que promovio el ocio, el sadismo, el abuso sexual hacia los negros de parte de los blancos portugueses, y que Freire critica duramente, cuando estas formas sadicas se le atribuyen a la lujuria africana, en la cual la brujeria fue solo un estimulo que conocieron dentro del marco de la superestructura sexual, fluctuaron creencias, rituales, magias sexuales, la brujeria del sapo, formo parte de la hechiceria de la macumba, complice de la infidelidad de las senoras.
Completou afirmando que o local era ponto de macumba e talvez de trafico de drogas, o que justificava plenamente a acao da policia.
"Il travaillait egalement avec Roger Bastide sur la Macumba du Bresil (terme qui designe l'ensemble des cultes afro-bresiliens, Ndlr).