Madero, Francisco Indalecio

Madero, Francisco Indalecio

(fränsē`skō ēndälā`syō mäthā`rō), 1873–1913, Mexican statesman and president (1911–13). A champion of democracy and social reform, he established various humanitarian institutions for the peons on his family's vast estates in Coahuila. In 1908, after Porfirio DíazDíaz, Porfirio
, 1830–1915, Mexican statesman, a mestizo, christened José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz. He gained prominence by supporting Benito Juárez and the liberals in the War of the Reform and in the war against Emperor Maximilian and the
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 announced that Mexico was ready for democracy, Madero published La sucesión presidencial en 1910, a mild protest against the Díaz regime; the book made Madero a national figure. In 1910 he was the Anti-Reelectionist party's presidential candidate, with a program emphasizing effective suffrage and non-reelection. Díaz, at first contemptuous of his opponent, finally imprisoned Madero and won the election, as usual, without difficulty. Madero, released, fled to Texas and there proclaimed a revolution. Returning to Mexico, he found several groups in Chihuahua already in arms. These rebels, some led by Francisco VillaVilla, Francisco
, c.1877–1923, Mexican revolutionary, nicknamed Pancho Villa.
His real name was Doroteo Arango.

When Villa came of age, he declared his freedom from the peonage of his parents and became notorious as a bandit in Chihuahua and Durango.
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, rallied to Madero's standard. On May 9, 1911, they captured Juárez; the prestige of the government was destroyed. At almost the same time an independent band rose under ZapataZapata, Emiliano
, c.1879–1919, Mexican revolutionary, b. Morelos. Zapata was of almost pure native descent. A tenant farmer, he occupied a social position between the peon and the ranchero, but he was a born leader who felt keenly the injustices suffered by his people.
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 in the south. Throughout the republic the movement quickly gathered strength. The revolution triumphed. Díaz resigned on May 25, 1911. Madero, elected president, took office in Nov., 1911. His administration was anything but successful, and he was unable to accomplish any notable reforms because of division among his followers and his own administrative inability. Numerous revolts ensued. In Feb., 1913, an insurrection broke out in the capital. Victoriano HuertaHuerta, Victoriano
, 1854–1916, Mexican general and president (1913–14). He served under Porfirio Díaz. After the revolution of Francisco I. Madero (1911) he aided the new president, who, reluctantly, made him (1912) commander of the federal forces.
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, appointed commander of the government forces, plotted with the rebels for Madero's fall. Pretending to punish the insurgents, Huerta staged a bloody show of force. Finally, after striking a clandestine bargain, he treacherously assassinated Madero's brother, assumed power, and caused Madero's arrest and imprisonment. Madero was shot, supposedly in an attempt to escape.

Bibliography

See biography by S. R. Ross (1955, repr. 1970); C. C. Cumberland, Mexican Revolution: Genesis under Madero (1952, repr. 1969); D. G. LaFrance, The Mexican Revolution in Puebla, 1908–1913 (1988).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Madero, Francisco Indalecio

 

Born Oct. 30, 1873, in the state of Coahuila; died Feb. 22, 1913, near Veracruz. Mexican statesman. Son of a big landowner.

Madero studied in Mexico, France, and the USA. He began his political career in 1904, coming out against the dictatorship of P. Diaz. Madero played a prominent role in the preparation and initial stages of the Mexican Revolution of 1910-17. Having become president (November 1911), he carried out a number of progressive measures directed at weakening the position of foreign imperialism and domestic reaction. His government was overthrown by a counterrevolutionary mutiny in February 1913 and he was murdered.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.