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see VedantaVedanta
, one of the six classical systems of Indian philosophy. The term "Vedanta" has the literal meaning "the end of the Veda" and refers both to the teaching of the Upanishads, which constitute the last section of the Veda, and to the knowledge of its ultimate meaning.
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Okita presents us with a rigorous and objective study of how and when the Gaudlya Vaisnava sampradaya lineage was constructed, as well as a philologically grounded study of Baladeva's thought in relation to his primary predecessors, especially Sankara, Sridhara Svamin, Madhva, Vijayadhvaja, and Jiva Gosvamin.
Second, Naranappa, rehearsing Charvaka brahmin-baiting, takes a savage delight in confounding Madhva pieties.
But the earlier Vaisnava Vedantins like Madhva introduced a categorization of the stages of mukti, viz., salokya, samipya, sarupya, and sayuja.
Before Madhva, there were Ramanuja and Alvars, the mystic devotees of South who experienced emotional relationship with the saguna manifestation of Reality as Visnu, Narayana, Krsna, Vasudeva, the adorable personal Lord of Vaisnavism who possessed/possesses the phenomenal emotions and feelings without ever being afflicted by them.
Dependent Agency and Hierarchical Determinism in the Theology of Madhva. In Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy, ed.
Yet, there have been attacks on Madhva's method of citing, in support of his novel dvaita theory, passages said to be from sruti and from smrti, starting soon after Madhva's time.
Indeed, we are ideally now faced with an irreversible advance beyond the easy habit of describing Vedanta primarily as the work of a few great thinkers, as if theologians such as Samkara, Ramanuja, and Madhva thought and wrote in splendid isolation.
Renou may have in mind the early native interpretation of the term, represented by Madhva at TB (= 1.109.7), in which sapitva- is glossed as sambandhitvam 'relationship'.
1909), doyen of today's Dvaita Vedanta scholars, here continues his monumental exposition of Jayatirtha's magnum opus--itself an extended commentary on Madhva's Anuvyakhyana (which is often considered Madhva's magnum opus).
For instance, my own family, I am told, ultimately was closely connected to the Madhva Vaisnava tradition, though this Vaisnava preference was not exclusive when I was growing up.
Schouten translates maya as "illusion," which is customary when we speak about the Advaita sect of Vedanta; but this was not the original meaning of the word in Vedic literature, nor was it accepted by later Vedantins such as Ramanuja and Madhva, nor is this the Virasaiva meaning, and Virasaiva authors have very explicitly argued against such an interpretation of the term.(40) The universe is a divine play of the Lord, and through a religious life we can see the divine essence behind all the manifoldness and experientially return to it: this we should consider our true, mystical goal in life.
Nelson; "Is Jivanmukti State Possible?: Ramanuja's Perspective," by Kim Skoog; and "Direct Knowledge of God and Living Liberation in the Religious Thought of Madhva," by Daniel P.