madrigal

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madrigal,

name for two different forms of Italian music, one related to the poetic madrigal in the 14th cent., the other the most common form of secular vocal music in the 16th cent. The poetic madrigal is a lyric consisting of one to four strophes of three lines followed by a two-line strophe called a ritornello. The most important 14th-century madrigal composers were Giovanni da Cascia (also known as Giovanni da Florentia) and Jacopo da Bologna (both fl. c.1350). Their madrigals are usually for two voices in long and florid melodic lines. The 16th-century madrigal is poetically a free imitation of its earlier counterpart; musically, it is unrelated. The earliest of these madrigals were usually homophonic in four and sometimes three parts, emotionally restrained, and lyric in spirit. The classic madrigals of Cipriano da Rore (1516–65), Andrea Gabrieli, Orlando di Lasso, and Filippo da Monte (1521–1603) were usually for five voices in a polyphonic and imitative style, the expression closely allied to the text. In the last part of the 16th cent. composers such as Luca Marenzio, Carlo Gesualdo (c.1560–1613), and Monteverdi intensified the expression of the text by the use of chromaticism, word painting, and declamatory effects. In the 17th cent. madrigal was used to designate certain expressive solo songs. In England the polyphonic madrigal had a late flowering in the Elizabethan era. Celebrated English madrigal composers include Byrd, Morley, Orlando Gibbons, Weelkes, and Wilbye.

Bibliography

See A. Einstein, The Italian Madrigal (3 vol., 1949); J. Kerman, The Elizabethan Madrigal (1962); J. Roche, The Madrigal (1972).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Madrigal

 

(Italian madrigale, from the medieval Latin matricale [from Latin mater, “mother”], a song in the mother tongue in contrast to Latin songs), a poetic and musical genre of the Renaissance. It originated in folk poetry, in old Italian pastoral songs. In the 14th century the madrigal appeared in Italian poetry as a lyric on idyllic themes and immediately attracted the attention of composers. Between the 14th and 16th centuries madrigal poems were generally written for a musical setting. The early musical-poetic madrigals were vocal and instrumental works for two or three voices consisting of several stanzas and a refrain. The subject matter was generally amorous, humorous, or mythological. Important composers included G. da Firenze and F. Landini.

After a period of decline the madrigal was revived in the 16th century as a piece for four or five voices, unaccompanied and usually lyrical. The principal composers in this form were A. Willaert, C. Festa, J. Arcadelt, Palestrina, and O. Lasso, and the texts were often verses by Petrarch, Boccaccio, Tasso, and Guarini. The madrigal was also popular in England (T. Morley, J. Wilbye) and Germany (H. L. Hassler, H. Schiitz). The late 16th-century madrigals of L. Marenzio, C. Gesualdo, and C. Monteverdi were characterized by a greater expressiveness of thought and feeling, abundant imagery, bold dissonances, chromaticism, and vivid rhythmic and stylistic contrasts. In the late 16th century and early 17th, madrigals fused with theatrical genres, becoming the basis for the madrigal comedy.

In later times madrigals were not musical compositions but rather “compliment” poems addressed to a lady. The madrigals of the 18th and early 19th centuries were salon and album verses. In Russia they were written by K. N. Batiushkov and A. S. Pushkin. A classic example is M. Iu. Lermontov’s poem:

Spirit incarnate! You boldly convince all;
I’ll agree, breathing love:
Your most beautiful body
Is but spirit!

T. N. DUBRAVSKAIA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

madrigal

1. Music a type of 16th- or 17th-century part song for unaccompanied voices with an amatory or pastoral text
2. a 14th-century Italian song, related to a pastoral stanzaic verse form
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Ethan Dahl: Band, Drumline, Jazz Band, Chorus, Madrigals, Musical, and Quad-State Choral
Mark Anthony Carpio, Madrigal conductor, led the launch by playing three of Federizon's choral arrangements in the book-'Kudot- Kudotan' (Pinching Game); 'Gamgam na Periko' ( The Parrot); and ' Saro, Dowa, Tulo' (One, Two, Three), a medley of Bikol folk songs.
Of the sixteen works by Andrea, ten appeared in print for the first time here; the six remaining madrigals can be found in anthologized collections dating as far back as 1554.
steps tonight is such we make, not madrigals, but of them, much: if
The ensemble will perform the first half of the program - those madrigals and other love songs - in full Elizabethan costume.
I was more struck, however, by the extent to which most of these madrigals are based on canzonetta styles and techniques--for all their contrapuntal virtuosity--with strong rhythms and clearly directed motion: this developing tendency through Monteverdi's output merits much further thought.
After securely linking Willaert and the other composers of Venetian madrigals (his pupils Girolamo Parabosco, Perissone Cambio and Baldassare Donato, and his younger contemporary Cipriano de Rore) to the upper-class world of literary patrons and academicians, Feldman explores the theoretical work, both poetic and musical, produced in or near those circles.
Members of the Stevenson High School choral program had one final trial run Tuesday before they take themselves and their guests back in time Sunday at their annual Madrigal dinner.
The Madrigals practically won a grand slam in the competition where they joined seven categories, including the 'Gran Premio Citta di Arezzo' that selects the choir to participate in next year's European Grand Prix to be held in Tolosa, Spain.
Marchi provides two compelling arguments to suggest that the lost: princeps would have been printed (and, therefore, that these madrigals would have been written) as early as the mid-1560s, First (and perhaps more compelling), the dedication was almost certainly written at.
Modal Subjectivities: Self-Fashioning in the Italian Madrigal.