Francois Magendie

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Magendie, François

(fräNswä` mäzhäNdē`), 1783–1855, French physician. He taught at the Collège de France and is considered a founder of experimental physiology. He distinguished the motor and sensory portions of peripheral nerves and studied the function of veins, the effect of air in arteries, and the uses and effects of various drugs.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Magendie, François

 

Born Oct. 6, 1783, in Bordeaux; died Oct. 7, 1855, in Sannois, department of Seine-et-Oise (according to other data, Oct. 8, 1855, in Paris). French physiologist. Member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1821; vice-president, 1836) and the Medical Academy (1819).

Magendie was one of the first to use the experimental method in animal physiology. (This approach was carried on by his pupil, C. Bernard). The best known of Magendie’s works deal with the physiology of the nervous system. In 1822 he proved experimentally that the anterior roots of the spinal cord are efferent (motor) and that the posterior roots are afferent (sensory). This is known as the Bell-Magendie law. Magendie did research on the trophic influence of the trigeminal nerve on eye tissue, the sensitivity of the cerebral cortex to pain stimuli, the significance of subcortical nerve centers in the coordination of movement, and the properties of cerebrospinal fluid. He also studied the mechanisms of the digestive tract and described the act of vomiting.

WORKS

Précis élémentaire de physiologie, 3rd ed., vols. 1-2. Paris, 1833.

REFERENCE

Karlik, L. N. “Fransua Mazhandi.” Klinicheskaia meditsina, 1959, vol. 37, no. 2.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lo comprobo correctamente por medio de experimentos realizados en animales de diversas especies en presencia de cientificos como Flourens, Magendie, Claude Bernard y la Academia de Ciencia de Paris, y con ello refuto a Galeno.
Magendie's pupil, Claude Bernard, who succeeded him in the chair at the College de France, would be no less a provoker of anti-French sentiment on the part of the antivivisectionists.
Cabe recordar a figuras como Francois Magendie (1783-1855), quien estudio los mecanismos de toxicidad de la emetina, estricnina y cianuro; a su estudiante, Claude Bernard (1813-1878), quien hizo contribuciones a la comprension de la intoxicacion por monoxido y curare, y a Rudolf Kobert (1854-1918), quien estudio el digital y los alcaloides del ergot (6).
More than one hundred and seventy years ago, Magendie discovered a small foramen in the floor of the fourth ventricle and pointed out the connection between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricular system and in the subarachnoid spaces of the brain and cord.
In 1899, Rudolph Matas, a surgeon in New Orleans, reported the use of this apparatus for the successful removal of a chest wall tumour, stating "It is curious that surgeons should have failed to apply for so long a time the suggestions of the physiological laboratory, where the bellows and tracheal tubes have been in constant use from the days of Magendie to the present, in practising artificial respiration in animals" (3).
Ya desde Descartes, se diferenciaron tempranamente los movimientos reflejos y voluntarios (Magendie: 1822).
Destacaron los nombres de fisiologos como Franz Joseph Gall, Frangois Magendie y Johannes Peter Muller.
They must therefore be provided through food and their dietary balance is essential to maintain optimal brain functions.Olivier Manzoni (Head of Research Inserm Unit 862, "Neurocentre Magendie," in Bordeaux and Unit 901 "Institut de Neurobiologie de la Mediterranee" in Marseille), and Sophie Laye (Head of Research at INRA Unit 1286, "Nutrition et Neurobiologie Integrative" in Bordeaux) and their co-workers hypothesized that chronic malnutrition during intra-uterine development, may later influence synaptic activity involved in emotional behaviour (e.g.
She has, however, woven this material into an engaging story, peopled with many luminaries of the Victorian era including physicians and scientists such as Virchow, Magendie, and Osier; writers such as Dickens, Alcott, and Tolstoy; public figures such as Nightingale, Darwin, and Mary Baker Eddy; and even politicians and royalty such as Sir Robert Peel and Queen Victoria herself.
As one historian writes, "Although Haller considered this textbook a concise summary of the field, the range of this work was so extensive that the great French physiologist Francois Magendie (1783--1855) complained that whenever he thought he had performed a new experiment, he found it had already been attempted or described by Haller.
In 1825, Magendie described the circulation of CSF within the brain (which was later named the "third circulation" by Cushing), and identified the midline foramen of the fourth ventricle.
Nineteenth-century practitioners of experimental physiology such as Francois Magendie and Claude Bernard were fond of using it to describe the work of their predecessors, although long before that Moliere had one of his characters in Le Malade imaginaire apply it to the explanations that physicians offered for the virtues of their therapies.