Maghreb

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Maghreb

or

Magrib

(both: mä`grĭb) [Arab.,=the West], Arabic term for NW Africa. It is generally applied to all of MoroccoMorocco
, officially Kingdom of Morocco, kingdom (2015 est. pop. 34,803,000), 171,834 sq mi (445,050 sq km), NW Africa. Morocco is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea (N), the Atlantic Ocean (W), Western Sahara (S), and Algeria (S and E).
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, AlgeriaAlgeria
, Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. Algérie, officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, republic (2015 est. pop. 39,872,000), 919,590 sq mi (2,381,741 sq km), NW Africa, bordering on Mauritania, Western Sahara, and Morocco in the west, on the
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, and TunisiaTunisia
, Fr. Tunisie, officially Republic of Tunisia, republic (2015 est. pop. 11,274,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on the west by Algeria, on the north and east by the
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 but actually pertains only to the area of the three countries between the high ranges of the Atlas Mts. and the Mediterranean Sea. Some writers also included Spain—especially during its period of Muslim domination—in the definition. Isolated from the rest of the continent by the Atlas Mts. and the Sahara, the Maghreb is more closely related in terms of climate, landforms, population, economy, and history to N Mediterranean areas than to the rest of Africa. The region was united politically only during the first years of Arab rule (early 8th cent.), and again under the Almohads (1159–1229). The Arab Maghreb Union was established in 1989 to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states of N Africa; its members are Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. Envisioned initially by Muammar al-QaddafiQaddafi, Muammar al-
, 1942–2011, Libyan army officer and dictator. He graduated from the Univ. of Libya in 1963 and became an army officer in 1965. In 1969 he formed, along with a group of fellow officers, a secret revolutionary committee and led (1969) a successful coup
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 as an Arab superstate, the organization is expected eventually to function as a N African common market, although economic and political unrest, especially in Algeria, and political tensions between Algeria and Morocco over Western SaharaWestern Sahara,
territory (2015 est. pop. 526,000), 102,703 sq mi (266,000 sq km), NW Africa, occupied by Morocco. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the west, on Morocco in the north, on Algeria in the northeast, and on Mauritania in the east and south.
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 have hindered progress on the union's joint goals.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Maghreb

, Maghrib
NW Africa, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and sometimes Libya
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The information asymmetry between a Maghribi merchant and his agent is similar to the information asymmetry between Overseas Supplier and Buyer because the latter fears opportunistic behavior by the former, operating at great distance from himself.
Speaking at the opening of the Research Center for Islamic Legislation and Ethics (CILE) Second Annual International Conference at the Georgetown University Qatar on Saturday, Maghribi underscored water scarcity as among the most serious environmental threats in the region, which ironically has some countries having among the highest per capita water consumption in the world.
(1989), 'Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on the Maghribi Traders', The Journal of Economic History, 49(4), 857-882.
Contract enforceability and economic institutions in early trade: The Maghribi Traders' Coalition.
202, 211-12 (1997) (examining private contractual enforcement among Spanish merchants in 1830s California); Avner Greif, Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders' Coalition, 83 AM.
Nawal A Maghribi, Director of Kalba Branch said that the course helped develop concept of leadership on the right track.
Greif (1993) describes how Maghribi traders in the eleventh century successfully operated across borders in the Middle East by nurturing a reputation for trust by forming a coalition of traders which required honesty enforced by the threat of exclusion.
Jeremy Edwards and Sheilagh Ogilvie, "Contract Enforcement, Institutions, and Social Capital: the Maghribi Traders Reappraised" [421-444]
To strengthen its collection of early Arab calligraphy, the department acquired a bifolium from the 'Nurse's Qur'an', a well-documented manuscript with a distinctive version of Maghribi script and a fascinating story of female patronage in medieval Tunisia.
A sampling of topics includes Maghribi fatwas as evidence of the legal status of science, the rhetoric behind historical accounts, the duties and architectural patronage of the first chief harem eunuch in 16th-century Istanbul, and the rhetoric and lessons behind the adaptation of the so-called battle of the ditch of Cordoban caliph Abd al-Rahman III.
As TALIM, the legation remains integrated into its urban environment, proud of showcasing the myriad ways that Moroccan-American relations developed over the years and eager to involve young Maghribi and American scholars in this living example of people-to-people diplomacy.
Mohamed Ghannouchi said that "in spite of the efforts exerted to boost trade exchanges between Maghreb countries, results are still modest and below the available opportunities and capacities of AMU member countries".A n this context, the adoption of the integration approach between Maghribi countries, as well as the lifting of the hurdles impediments that hinder economic Maghribi policy, and prevent the creation of new mechanisms for regional cooperation, were some of the proposals presented on Monday in Tunis, by the various participants to the conference.