489 that, "From this, applying the principal that action and reaction are equal and opposite, we conclude that the mechanical action [force] of the magnetic system [external source producing a B field] on a current carrying circuit is identical [emphasis mine] with its action [force] on a magnetic shell [thin surface layer of magnetization normal to the surface--see Art.
He says this magnetic-shell force will be the same force experienced by the current-carrying conductor modeled by the magnetic shell. In other words, in order to evaluate the magnetic-induction force on an established current in a stationary circuit, Maxwell models the circuit by a thin, fixed, solid, magnetic shell and determines the force on this shell by evaluating its change in potential energy caused by an incremental displacement (local translation without rotation).
489, "From this, applying the principle that action and reaction are equal and opposite, we conclude that the mechanical action [force] of a magnetic system on the electric circuit is identical with its action [force] on a magnetic shell having the circuit for its edge." Since this application of Newton's law of action and reaction to magnetostatic forces on magnetic shells holds regardless of whether the magnetic dipoles are created by magnetic charge or circulating Amperian electric current, the force in (61) is the same for both magnetic-charge and Amperian magnetization.
One could also determine from this torque formula the force on an increment of the edge of a magnetic shell in a uniform field B by letting m = IA[??], the dipole moment of the entire planar current-carrying circuit of area A.
However, the inorganic phase of [Gd.sub.2][O.sub.3] was partly soluble in the magnetic shell when the products were reduced in [H.sub.2] gas at 450[degrees]C.
However, a problem has puzzled us that inorganic phase ([Gd.sub.2][O.sub.3]) is partially soluble in the magnetic shell during the reduction process.
Despite this, the powder dried [Gd.sub.2][O.sub.3]-coated Gd[Ni.sub.2] magnetic shells could be well redispersed in aqueous solutions, and the suspended particles were well collected using a magnet within 0.5 min (Figure 5(a), left inset), which suggests that they can be manipulated by an external small magnetic field.
Today we know that these lights, first called the aurora borealis or "dawn of the North" by Galileo Galilei, form when gusts of charged, energetic particles from the Sun breach Earth's protective magnetic shell and hit the planet's atmosphere.
Earth's invisible, protective magnetic shell shields us against these particles.
The magnetic shell
density is narrower and weaker than the nuclear shell density.
A shock wave generated by the storm rammed into the magnetic shell
that surrounds Earth, giving enough of a kick to gas trapped in the ionosphere, a layer of the upper atmosphere, to expel several hundred tons of gas, mainly oxygen.
The effects of magnetic shell
permeability changes and magnetic gap variations are eliminated as temperature dependent elements in a well designed filter structure.