Magnetic instruments

Magnetic instruments

Instruments designed for the measurement of magnetic field strength or magnetic flux density, depending on their principle of operation.

Hall-effect instruments

Often called gaussmeters, these instruments measure magnetic field strength. They have a useful working range from 10 A/m to 2.4 MA/m (0.125 oersted to 30 kilooersteds). When a magnetic field, Hz, is applied in a direction at right angles to the current flowing in a conductor (or semiconductor), a voltage proportional to Hz is produced across the conductor in a direction mutually perpendicular to the current and the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is called the Hall effect. The output voltage of the Hall probe is proportional to the Hall coefficient, which is a characteristic of the Hall-element material, and is inversely proportional to the thickness of this material. For a sensitive Hall probe, the material is thin with a large Hall coefficient. The semiconducting materials indium arsenide and indium antimonide are particularly suitable. See Hall effect

Fluxgate magnetometer

This instrument is used to measure low magnetic field strengths. It is usually calibrated as a gaussmeter with a useful range of 0.2 millitesla to 0.1 nanotesla (2 gauss to 1 microgauss).

Fluxmeter

This instrument is designed to measure magnetic flux. A fluxmeter is a form of galvanometer in which the torsional control is very small and heavy damping is produced by currents induced in the coil by its motion. This enables a fluxmeter to accurately integrate an emf produced in a search coil when the latter is withdrawn from a magnetic field, almost independently of the time taken for the search coil to be moved. See Galvanometer

Electronic charge intergrators

Often termed an integrator or gaussmeter, an electronic charge integrator, in conjunction with a search coil of known effective area, is used for the measurement of magnetic flux density. Integrators have almost exclusively replaced fluxmeters because of their independence of level and vibration. The instrument (see illustration) consists of a high-open-loop-gain (107 or more) operational amplifier with a capacitive feedback and resistive input.

Arrangement of an electronic charge integratorenlarge picture
Arrangement of an electronic charge integrator

Rotating-coil gaussmeter

This instrument measures low magnetic field strengths and flux densities. It comprises a coil mounted on a nonmagnetic shaft remote from a motor mounted at the other end. The motor causes the coil to rotate at a constant speed, and in the presence of a magnetic field or magnetic flux density a voltage is induced in the search coil. The magnitude of the voltage is proportional to the effective area of the search coil and the speed of rotation.

Magnetic instruments

Instruments designed for the measurement of magnetic field strength or magnetic flux density, depending on their principle of operation.

Hall-effect instruments

Often called gaussmeters, these instruments measure magnetic field strength. They have a useful working range from 10 A/m to 2.4 MA/m (0.125 oersted to 30 kilooersteds). When a magnetic field, Hz, is applied in a direction at right angles to the current flowing in a conductor (or semiconductor), a voltage proportional to Hz is produced across the conductor in a direction mutually perpendicular to the current and the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is called the Hall effect. The output voltage of the Hall probe is proportional to the Hall coefficient, which is a characteristic of the Hall-element material, and is inversely proportional to the thickness of this material. For a sensitive Hall probe, the material is thin with a large Hall coefficient. The semiconducting materials indium arsenide and indium antimonide are particularly suitable.

Fluxgate magnetometer

This instrument is used to measure low magnetic field strengths. It is usually calibrated as a gaussmeter with a useful range of 0.2 millitesla to 0.1 nanotesla (2 gauss to 1 microgauss).

Fluxmeter

This instrument is designed to measure magnetic flux. A fluxmeter is a form of galvanometer in which the torsional control is very small and heavy damping is produced by currents induced in the coil by its motion. This enables a fluxmeter to accurately integrate an emf produced in a search coil when the latter is withdrawn from a magnetic field, almost independently of the time taken for the search coil to be moved.

Electronic charge intergrators

Often termed an integrator or gaussmeter, an electronic charge integrator, in conjunction with a search coil of known effective area, is used for the measurement of magnetic flux density. Integrators have almost exclusively replaced fluxmeters because of their independence of level and vibration. The instrument (see illus.) consists of a high-open-loop-gain (107 or more) operational amplifier with a capacitive feedback and resistive input. See Operational amplifier

Rotating-coil gaussmeter

This instrument measures low magnetic field strengths and flux densities. It comprises a coil mounted on a nonmagnetic shaft remote from a motor mounted at the other end. The motor causes the coil to rotate at a constant speed, and in the presence of a magnetic field or magnetic flux density a voltage is induced in the search coil. The magnitude of the voltage is proportional to the effective area of the search coil and the speed of rotation.

References in periodicals archive ?
The instruments include magnetic instruments that measure plasma waves, a particle suite and a white light imager.
As we headed southeast, away from the Pacific Coast and toward the Arizona desert, the whole crowd of magnetic instruments began to behave again.
Moreover, the EEG is sensitive to noise produced by the environment--for example, by electric power lines and any electric or magnetic instruments.
Magnetic Instruments, Aston Science Park, is developing new systems that could revolutionise magneto-cardiography, awarded pounds 40,500.
The Company also manufactures and sells complex data storage systems, magnetic instruments, current sensors, high-pressure closures and a variety of other industrial products.
They'll include magnetic instruments to measure plasma waves, a high energetic particle suite and a white light imager, (https://www.
Scintrex technologies include gravimeters, magnetometers, induced polarization, resistivity radiometrics and borehole logging as well as high-resolution cesium magnetic instruments.
The Company also manufactures and sells integrated data acquisition, storage and analysis systems, magnetic instruments, current sensors, high-pressure closures, and a variety of other industrial products.
The Company manufactures and sells integrated data acquisition, storage and analysis systems, magnetic instruments, current sensors, high-pressure closures and a variety of other industrial products.
The Company's products range from integrated data acquisition, storage and retrieval systems, magnetic instruments and current sensors to high pressure closures and other industrial products.