Mahmud of Ghazna

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Mahmud of Ghazna

(mämo͞od`, gŭz`na), 971?–1030, Afghan emperor and conqueror. He defeated (c.999) his elder brother to gain control of Khorasan (in Iran) and of Afghanistan. In his raids against the states of N India, Mahmud, a staunch Muslim, destroyed Hindu temples, forced conversions to Islam, and carried off booty and slaves. Hindus especially abhorred his destruction of the temple to Shiva at Somnath in Gujarat. Mahmud's territorial gains lay mainly W and N of Afghanistan and in the Punjab. At Ghazna (see GhazniGhazni
, city (1981 est. pop. 31,200), capital of Ghazni prov., E central Afghanistan, on the Ghazni River. Located on the Kabul-Kandahar trade route, Ghazni is a market for sheep, wool, camel hair cloth, corn, and fruit. The famed Afghan sheepskin coats are made in the city.
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), his capital, he built a magnificent mosque. His successors in the Ghaznavid dynasty, which Mahmud founded, ruled over a reduced domain with the capital at Lahore until 1186.


See biographies by M. Nazim (1931) and M. Habib (2d ed. 1967); C. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids (1973) and The Later Ghaznavids (1977).

References in periodicals archive ?
Civil rights activist KG Kannabiran said the scope of the loot makes Mahmud of Ghazni and Nadir Shah look like petty pickpockets.
The Persian epic poet Ferdowsi is said to have been cheated of his promised reward by Mahmud of Ghazni on the completion of the Shahnameh in 1010 CE.
The chapter devotes itself largely to how Mahmud of Ghazni looted "India and Saurashtra ( in Gujarat)".
Though commissioned by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni to write a poetic version of an old book with expected applaud for the king Ferdowsi takes on a far greater task incorporating Persian history, and his desire for a new Persian identity.
It was also the historical land where the Muslim conquerors, Mahmud of Ghazni, Babur of Ferghana and Akbar fought their battles preparatory to the conquest of South Asia.
Examples of recording events to manipulate history are revealing, as for instance Baron Ellenborough's (Governor General of India, 1841-44) ruse in passing off the doors from the tomb of Mahmud of Ghazni as those plundered from the temple of Somnath.