verb

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verb

Verbs are used to indicate the actions, processes, conditions, or states of beings of people or things.
Verbs play an integral role to the structure of a sentence. They constitute the root of the predicate, which, along with the subject (the “doer” of the verb’s action), forms a full clause or sentence—we cannot have a sentence without a verb.
When we discuss verbs’ role in the predicate, we usually divide them into two fundamental categories: finite and non-finite verbs.
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verb,

part of speechpart of speech,
in traditional English grammar, any one of about eight major classes of words, based on the parts of speech of ancient Greek and Latin. The parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, interjection, preposition, conjunction, and pronoun.
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 typically used to indicate an action. English verbs are inflected for person, numbernumber,
entity describing the magnitude or position of a mathematical object or extensions of these concepts. The Natural Numbers

Cardinal numbers describe the size of a collection of objects; two such collections have the same (cardinal) number of objects if their
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, tensetense
[O.Fr., from Lat.,=time], in the grammar of many languages, a category of time distinctions expressed by any conjugated form of a verb. In Latin inflection the tense of a verb is indicated by a suffix that also indicates the verb's voice, mood, person, and number.
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 and partially for moodmood
or mode,
in verb inflection, the forms of a verb that indicate its manner of doing or being. In English the forms are called indicative (for direct statement or question or to express an uncertain condition, e.g.
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; compound verbs formed with auxiliaries (e.g., be, can, have, do, will) provide a distinction of voicevoice,
grammatical category according to which an action is referred to as done by the subject (active, e.g., men shoot bears) or to the subject (passive, e.g., bears are shot by men). In Latin, voice is a category of inflection like mood or tense.
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. Some English verblike forms have properties of two parts of speech (e.g., participles may be used as adjectives and gerunds as nouns). Verbs are also classified as transitive (requiring a direct object) or intransitive. In Latin verb inflectioninflection,
in grammar. In many languages, words or parts of words are arranged in formally similar sets consisting of a root, or base, and various affixes. Thus walking, walks, walker have in common the root walk and the affixes -ing, -s, and -er.
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, voice and mood are indicated in every form. Most languages have a form class resembling that of English verbs. In many of them, unlike English, these words may form complete sentences, e.g., in Spanish, "I am singing" is expressed by the single word canto. Some languages (e.g., Turkish) can convey a great deal of information through modifications of form in the verb stem and ending, without the aid of auxiliary forms. A single word, for example, can indicate reciprocity, reflexivity, necessity, time, infinitive, number, person, and voice, as well as negative, causative, imperative, and intensive meanings.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Verb

 

a part of speech that denotes action or condition and is used in a sentence primarily as a predicate. The grammatical meaning of action or condition becomes clear in one or another system of grammatical categories that are characteristic of the verb (in the given language) and, in their aggregate, distinguish it from other parts of speech in that language. These grammatical categories are expressed by conjugation, which may be simple (Russian pishu, “I write,” or pisal, “I [thou, he] wrote”; or Ukrainian pysatymu, “I will write”) or complex, using helping verbs (budu pisat’, “I will write”) or particles (pisal by, “I [thou, he] would write”).

The most common grammatical categories of the verb are tense, mood, aspect, and voice. When functioning as a predicate, the verb relates to the subject of the sentence and sometimes by its form indicates the subject, making it unnecessary (for example, in the Russian poidesh’, “thou wilt go,” the verb form itself indicates the second person familiar—that is, the fact that the action is being performed by the person being spoken to). In many languages the verb agrees with the subject in person and number, and sometimes (as in Arabic and in Russian in the past tense and subjunctive) in gender or, in many African and some Caucasian languages, in class. In verbs of some languages the categories of person and number are absent altogether (for example, the Danish skriver means “I write,” “thou writest,” “he writes,” and “we write”).

In many languages, verbs having objects agree with these objects, direct and indirect (polypersonal conjugation). Thus, in Adygei se o u-s-shag, “I took thee,” the first prefix, u-, refers to the direct object o (thee), and the second prefix, -s-, refers to the subject, se (I). Verbs not used with a subject are called impersonal verbs—Russian svetaet, “it’s getting light”, or smerkaetsia, “it’s getting dark.” In several languages verbs are used only with a so-called formal subject and do not refer to a real person or subject—Russian svetaet, “it’s getting light”; German es dämmert, “it’s getting dark.”

The predicate function is not the only syntactic function of the verb; it appears in other functions, but usually in a specific form. In Chinese the verb used as an attribute must affix the particle ti which has the effect of annulling its predicative quality (for example, compare wo k’an ti shu, “the book being read by me,” and wo k’an shu, “I read the book”). In many languages there are entire series of verb forms that are rarely or never used as predicates: participles, verbal adverbs, infinitives, supine forms, gerunds, masdars (verbal nouns), and so on.

REFERENCES

Meshchaninov, I. I. Glagol. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.
Isachenko, A. V. Grammaticheskii stroi russkogo iazyka v sopostavlenii s slovatskim: Morfologiia, part 2. Bratislava, 1960.
Bondarko, A. V., and L. L. Bulanin. Russkii glagol. Leningrad, 1967.

IU. S. MASLOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

verb

[vərb]
(computer science)
In COBOL, the action indicating part of an unconditional statement.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The use of do underlines the verbal character of the main verbs and thus contributes to minimizing opacity in the language (11)-(14).
In reality it is not the case: in this periphrastic structure the main verb is nothing other than the modifier of the connegative, and the connegative is, in turn, the reduced variant al of the regular imperative 2nd-person form of the E-verb ula=s 'to be' according to the stress-rule (see above): om ul > omel 'I was not ...' The hierarchy of the structure is shown by the following diagram: (11)
As for the main verb, it is a very real possibility that the scribe knew a tradition that equated silim or ma with palasu--an equivalence unknown to us--or he simply made it up.
Helping verbs are added to the main verb to form a verb phrase.
Even main verbs can sometimes be negated without the negative suffix as in (33) (adapted from Uwalaka 2003; 11, glossing is mine):
Compare to the previous work our proposed system imposes semantic constrain on main verbs in question and semantic match on relation using Word Net's meronym, hypernym and hyponyms hierarchy.
Tregex (Levy & Andrew, 2006) is a powerful syntactic tree search language for identifying syntactic elements (e.g., main verbs of sentences) and which has been used by researchers (Heilman & Smith, 2010) to define wh-movement rules.
Secondly, the Spanish infinitive and the English gerund establish a subordinate relationship with the main verb or predicate.
The subject in all of the above sentences agrees with the auxiliary while the object agrees with the main verb. To me, these examples are interesting because all of them show the SOV word order pattern and no other pattern is grammatically correct here in the future tense.
First of all, the passato prossimo requires the formation of the past participle of the main verb, or the verb being used.
Although E102 showed better mastery on do-transformations, they failed to omit the -s, for example, from the main verb and kept it along with the auxiliary as in the following example:
Even the grammar reinforces the point that in the (literally) final analysis it is God--and only God--whose mighty acts count: every main verb in the description of the banquet has God as its subject (w.