Lydia(redirected from Maionia)
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Lydia, in the Bible
Lydia, ancient country, Asia
an ancient country in western Asia Minor in the fertile Hermus River valley.
The territory of Lydia was populated by the Indo-European tribes of Lydians, who spoke one of the Hittite-Luwian languages and who had a written alphabet that was used from the seventh to fourth centuries B. C. Lydia was rich in gold deposits, and it was there that at around the seventh century B.C. the first coins in human history were minted. Lydia was famous for its jewelery, weaving, and leather production. Its geographical location helped it to develop foreign trade relations.
At the beginning of the first millennium B. C., Lydia became part of Phrygia. In the early seventh century B.C. it became an independent state with its capital at Sardis. Invasion by Cimmerians and Thracians apparently caused a change of dynasties in Lydia. (According to Greek tradition, the Heraclid dynasty ruled in Lydia from the 12th century. In the early seventh century B. C., the Mermnad dynasty began to rule; their first kings conquered the Greek cities of Asia Minor.) During the reign of Croesus, Lydia’s power extended to nearly all of the peninsula of Asia Minor except the southern regions. In 546 B. C., Lydia was seized by the Persian king Cyrus II. In the fourth century B. C. it became part of the realm of Alexander the Great. During the third and second centuries B. C., Lydia was part of the state of the Seleucids and then of the state of Pergamum. In 133 B. C., Lydia became part of the Roman province of Asia.
REFERENCESShevoroshkin, V. V. Lidiiskii iazyk. Moscow, 1967.
Gusmani, R. Lydisches Wõrterbuch. Heidelberg, 1964. Pages 17–48.