Majority System

Majority System


in bourgeois state law, a system for determining the results of elections to representative bodies. Under the majority system the candidate (or list of candidates) that receives the majority of votes as established by law is considered to have been elected in a given district. Modern bourgeois states use the absolute majority system and the relative majority system (the USA, Great Britain, India, and Mexico).

Under the absolute majority system, the candidate who receives the absolute (or simple) majority of the total number of votes cast and recognized as valid (that is, 50 percent plus one) is considered to have been elected. If none of the candidates receives the required number of votes, the two candidates who received the greatest number of votes compete on a second ballot. Instead of a second ballot, a second round of voting is sometimes held, the results of which are determined by another majority system. In France, for example, where the absolute majority system is used in elections to the National Assembly, the relative majority system is used in the second round.

Under the relative majority system, the candidate who receives more votes than any of his opponents is considered the winner. In countries where this system is used, a parliamentary majority is often won by a party that does not have the support of the majority of the electorate.

There is another majority system, the qualified system, under which two-thirds or three-fourths of the total number of votes cast are required for a victory. It is used very rarely (for example, in elections to the Italian Senate). However, insofar as only a small minority of candidates receive 65 percent of the votes of the electorate, parliamentary seats are distributed according to a proportional system of representation.

Depending on the number of deputies elected from each electoral district, majority systems are classified as uninominal, or one-mandate (single-member districts), and polynominal, or multimandate systems (multiple-member districts).

In the bourgeois states both forms of majority systems are undemocratic. The majority system is not representative, because a parliament formed as a result of majority system elections does not, as a rule, reflect the actual balance of political forces and the roles of the different parties. For example, in elections to the National Assembly in France (March 1973) the Communists received as many votes as the ruling party (the Union of Democrats for the Republic), but the latter received twice as many seats as the Communists. Moreover, under the multiparty system in the bourgeois states, the majority system always favors the powerful bourgeois parties, and the considerable number of votes cast by the electorate for small parties have no effect.

Because the use of the majority system results in a serious distortion of the will of the electorate in the interests of the ruling circles, democratic forces in the bourgeois countries are fighting for the introduction of proportional systems of representation, under which seats in a representative body are distributed in proportion to the number of votes received by each party. This system more accurately expresses the will of the electorate.

References in periodicals archive ?
Joining forces with detractors, House Speaker Yiannakis Omirou said the introduction of a majority system could only be justified in parliamentary system of government.
Holding the referendum itself has been a cause of Bulgarian President Rosen Plevneliev, who put it forward early last week as part of a question "package" on voting rules that included two more issues such as whether to make voting compulsory and the introduction of a full or partial majority system.
SDSM proposed that there should be only one electoral unit instead of six at home and three abroad, while VMRO-DPMNE argues for a majority system of vote rather than proportional.
Since 2000, conditions are provided for participation of political parties in formation of the parliament by majority system.
Speaking ahead of the rally, Ms Sturgeon told BBC Radio Scotland: "What I'm suggesting is the kind of double majority system you see in some federal states like Canada and Australia, that for the UK to leave the European Union it would require not just the UK as a whole to vote for that but for each one of the four home nations also to vote for it.
67) This happened with the elected industrial courts, social insurance boards, in many municipalities, and a number of German states, while still being resisted at national level where the majority system under-represented the SPD.
However, in the past, the party shared a similar stance as the one of VMRO-DPMNE for a majority system with 120 constituencies.
Our Parliamentary majority system is not suited for good Government.
Political scientist Cristian Preda discusses in one of his latest works a project of the National Salvation Front (FSN), from January 1990, which provided the adoption, for parliamentary elections, of a single member majority system, most of the members of the Provisional Council for National Union (CPUN) considering that the proportional representation system was more complicated than the majority system (Preda, 2011: 294).
The very simple majority system of election of MPs and MLAs is to be indirectly blamed for the growing corruption in India.
He said, the first purpose of the visit is to reaffirm the friendship between the two countries and to exchange experiences between the Council of Oman (that is made up of the upper non-elected State Council and lower elected Peoples Council in the Sultanate s bicameral system of governance) and the similar Swiss system that also has two chambers with the lower chamber being elected in proportion to the population, while the Senate, the upper chamber of state, uses a majority system from the Cantons we re a federal state with 23 Cantons with each Canton providing two members to our Senate.
The most prominent example of the two-round majority system in the contemporary world is France.