The second part of the book, entitled 'Making-history', argues that the advent of literacy led to radical changes in the way the past was understood, interpreted and used by the Makassarese
. Chapter 4 contends that the ability to compose written histories with detailed genealogies led to an increasingly hierarchical and ranked society, where rulers 'eclipsed kalompoangas the most sacred objects in the land and as the cultural forces of social and political life' (p.
He described how European merchants were protected by the King, and noted that the local community of Malays was held 'in high esteem, having their houses in the settlements scattered among the houses of the Makassarese
history according to the Gowa Chronicle
Although statistics relating to ethnicity were not maintained during the Soeharto period, local informal estimates hold that approximately 50 per cent are Bugis, 25 per cent Makassarese
, 10 per cent each Toraja and Mandar, with some Indonesian-born Chinese and migrants from other islands.
The author's assertion that the Sayyid community is culturally Makassarese
moerap(i) WCL, marrapi Gudang 'bamboo tobacco pipe,' reflecting ISEA forms like Makassarese
marapdwo 'bamboo.' Reflexes are widely diffused southward in CYP languages where they variably denote 'bamboo' or 'bamboo pipe' (Alpher 2017:215).
William Cummings' article focuses on the expansion of the Makassarese
sultanate (Gowa) in the sixteenth century.
Indigenous place based cultural groups (Goebel, 2010), so named because of their regional locations, include the Javanese, Sundanese, Bantenese, Betawi, Tengger, Osing and Badui from Java; the Madurese from Madura; Malays, Batak, Minangkabau, Acehnese, Lampung and Kubu groups from Sumatra; the Dayak and Banjar from Kalimantan; Makassarese
, Buginese, Mandar, Minhasa, Gorontalonese, Toraja and Bajau from Sulawesi; the Balinese and Sasak from the Sunda Islands; Nuaulu, Manusela and Wemale from the Moluccas; and Dani, Bauzi and Asmat from Papua.
It is worth noting that traditionally the concept of Rewa is tightly related the value of siri' (local concept of shame and dignity among Makassarese
and Buginese, two major ethnic groups in South Sulawesi) that refers to positive qualities, such as showing courage in defending dignity, earning a lot of money or gaining a high level of knowledge and skills (Mattulada, 1979, 1998).
For approximately two years the shaykh personally led a force of about five thousand Bantenese, Makassarese
, Javanese, and Buginese followers in skirmishes against the Dutch (Azra 2006: 97).
(=tn, nc', i't i[??]x i w c'n, n't, tx w) In Makassarese
, copy vowels protect stem-final consonants from NoCoda violations through insertion of a copy vowel.
, Melanesians, Papuans, Chinese, Arabs, and