The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(pseudonym, Fragi). Date of birth and death unknown. Turkmen poet of the 18th century.

Makhtumkuli was the son of the poet Azadi. He studied in Shirgazi madrasa in the city of Khiva. He traveled a great deal and was well acquainted with the literature and folklore of Central Asia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. He was taken into captivity by the Iranians. Some of Makhtumkuli’s verses are addressed to a brother who had disappeared (probably also taken captive); in these poems, the personal suffering of the poet is fused with the tragedy of his people ravaged by the enemy. More than 10,000 lines of his poems have come down to us; at times pessimistic and religious notes are discernible in his work.

Makhtumkuli’s civic poetry contains several strains: a condemnation of intertribal discord; a call to ponder the struggle for existence conducted by those who have been deprived of earthly blessings; and denunciation of the reactionary clergy.

Makhtumkuli exerted an enormous influence on the development of Turkmenian poetry. His poetry is organically connected with folk poetry. Makhtumkuli altered the Turkmenian poetic language, bringing it closer to the popular speech and replacing the aruz with the popular syllabic system.


Saylanan ëserler, vols. 1-2. Ashkhabad, 1959.
In Russian translation:
Izbr. stikhotvoreniia, Moscow, 1941.
Izbrannoe. Moscow, 1960.


Makhtumkuli: lubileinyi sbornik, posviashchennyi 225-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia velikogo turkmenskogo poeta, Ashkhabad, 1961.
Sosonkin, I. L. Iz istorii esteticheskoi mysli v Turkmenistan. Ashkhabad, 1969.
Kor-Ogly, Kh. Turkmenskaia literatura. Moscow, 1972.
Karryev, B. A. Magtïmgulï ve onïng vatanchïlïgï. Ashkhabad, 1943.
Karryev, B. A. “Magtïmgulï ve khalk döredijiligi.” Izv. Turkm. filiala AN SSSR, 1950, no. 4.
Magtïmgulï: Shakhïrnïng ömrüne ve döredijiligine degishli makalar yigind’isi. Ashkhabad, 1960.
Gïlïchdurdïev, A. Magtïmgulïnïng ëstetiki garayïshlarï ve khëzirki zaman. Ashkhabad, 1967.
Charïev, G. O. Magtïmgulï-akïldar. Ashkhabad, 1971.
Abramova, F. Sh. Makhtumkuli (Fragi), 225 let so dnia rozhdeniia: Ukazatel’ literatury. Ashkhabad, 1959.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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