It would be sad to make it worse by preventing farmers from using natural manure, something that has been done everywhere, perhaps since the days of Adam and Eve.The only way anyone in his or her right mind would accept to oblige farmers to use this miraculous fertilizer that complies with the regulations of the proposed bill, would be if this fertilizer is produced and distributed by Simon Makonde
The first reported case was in the early 1950s, on the border of Tanzania and Mozambique (the Makonde
Clinically, CKG presents as a self-limiting illness characterized by acute onset of high grade fever accompanied by severe arthralgia, myalgia, headache and various mucocutaneous manifestations.1 The name is derived from the Makonde
language of Tanzania meaning "that which bends up" in reference to the contorted posture because of severe joint pain in this illness.2 The first outbreak of CKG was documented in Makonde
, United Republic of Tanzania in 1952.2,3 The disease has been reported mainly from Africa and different Asian countries cyclically, with an interepidemic interval of several years to decades.4 Although there is evidence of persistence of the virus at a low level in the community; explosive outbreaks after periods of long quiescence is the usual epidemiologic pattern.5
Ethnicities included Ambanivolo, Ambalambo, Andrantsay, Antaisaka, Antalaotra, Antanosy, Antasimo, Hehe, Betanimena, Maninga, Marvace Sakalava, Bisa, Ekoti, Kamanga, Lolo, Makonde
, Makua, Maravi, Mrima, Yao, Ngindo, Nyambe, Nyamwezi, Sagara and Sena.
The symptoms of CHIKV infection include abrupt onset of fever, chills, headache, rash, and severe joint pain with or without swelling (usually the smaller joints) which gave rise to the name Chikungunya, which means "to walk bent over" in Makonde
, an African language.
El CHIKV fue aislado por primera vez en Africa occidental, donde se bautizo con el nombre chikungunya, el cual hace referencia a la postura encorvada que se desarrolla en un individuo como consecuencia de los sintomas articulares y proviene de la lengua bantu del pueblo Makonde
, ubicado Tanzania y Mozambique (3).
For the Mozambican context, Harry West (2005) has argued that an upward trend in long-standing sorcery fears among Makonde
residents of the Mueda Plateau in the 1990s was related to neoliberal reforms and the introduction of democracy, partly because of the deleterious effects these had on socio-economic equality, but also because commitments to liberal notions of individual freedom and human rights prevented local administrators from acting on sorcery accusations.
The virus was isolated in the year 1952-53 from a patient with febrile illness while an outbreak on the Makonde
plateau in the Southern province of Tanzania was going on.1 The name chikungunya was derived from Swahili or Makonde
language word Kan-qunwala means "to become contorted" or "twisted".
Christabel Ndahebwa Muhonja, (1) Gabriel Magoma, (1) Mabel Imbuga, (2) and Huxley Mae Makonde
Mhondoro Zvimba Chegut Makonde
Kariba % Rejections 9.6 9.1 9 6.9 6.3 Sanyathi Hurungwe Kariba % Rejections 6 4.5 0 Note: Table made from bar graph.
The virus was initially isolated in Tanzania in 1952 and named "chikungunya" after the Makonde
word meaning "that which bends up," referring to symptoms experienced by affected individuals (5).
Among them are negotiations for the return of Nok sculptures from France to Nigeria, and of a Makonde
Mask from Switzerland to Tanzania.