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mountains in southeastern Iran and Pakistan, framing the Iranian Plateau from the southeast. They extend in the form of arcs for 1,150 km, from the Strait of Hormuz in the west to the outskirts of the city of Quetta in the east, where they border on the northernmost part of the Central Brahui Range. The mountains consist of several parallel chains with elevations of 1,000–2,000 m divided by longitudinal basins and cut by gorges. Maximum elevation, 3,277 m (Mount Maran in the northeastern Makran). They are composed primarily of lime-stones and sandstones. Marls, schists, and flysch are common in the basins and the foothills. Earthquakes are frequent. There are mud volcanoes in the foothills. Desert vegetation predominates, with mountain savanna in the east and areas of Himalayan-type forests in the northeast. Narrow bands of deciduous forest and groves of date palms grow in places along the river valleys. The coastal tropical desert of Garmsir extends along the southern foot of the mountains.