Malay Peninsula

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Malay Peninsula

(məlā`, mā`lā), southern extremity (c.70,000 sq mi/181,300 sq km) of the continent of Asia, lying between the Andaman Sea of the Indian Ocean and the Strait of Malacca on the west and the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea on the east. It stretches south for c.700 mi (1,100 km) from the Isthmus of Kra, where it is narrowest, to Singapore. The northern part of the peninsula forms a part of Thailand; the southern part constitutes West Malaysia, the Malayan part of Malaysia. The peninsula forms a physical and cultural link between the mainland of Asia and the islands of Indonesia (often included in the Malay Archipelago).

A mountain range (the highest point of which is Gunong Tahan, 7,186 ft/2,190 m, in Malaysia) forms the backbone of the peninsula; from it numerous short, swift rivers flow east and west. More than half of the land surface is covered with tropical rain forest; the only open areas, aside from clearings made for settlement and agriculture, are the alluvial plains of the west-central portion of the peninsula and stretches along the rivers. The region is one of the richest of the world in the production of tin and rubber; other products include timber, copra and coconut oil, palm oil, tapioca, peanuts, pineapples, and bananas. Rice is the chief foodstuff.


The Malays, historically the dominant cultural group, probably came originally from S China (c.2,000 B.C.), but marriages with other peoples have modified their ethnic characteristics. The Chinese are now nearly as numerous as the Malays; Indians and Thais form important minority groups. Small tribes of aborigines, descendants of pre-Malay immigrants, are found in the hills and jungles.


The Malay Peninsula was visited near the beginning of the Christian era by traders from India and in the succeeding centuries received, like Indonesia and Indochina, Buddhist and Brahman missionaries and Hindu colonists. Small Hinduized states sprang up, like Langkasuka in the area of modern Kedah. In the second half of the 8th cent. the peninsula fell under the domination of the Sailendra rulers of Sri Vijaya (from Sumatra), who adopted Mahayana Buddhism. Their cities in Kedah and Pattani rivaled the importance of their capital at Palembang.

The peninsula was overrun in the 11th cent. by the Cholas from the Coromandel Coast of India; after about 50 years, the Sailendras, somewhat weakened, resumed their sway. Sailendra rule ended in the late 13th cent., when Sumatra and some southern areas of the Malay Peninsula fell to a Javan invasion and when the Thai king of Sukhothai swept over the peninsula from the north. The Sumatran kingdom of Melayu next ruled over the south of the peninsula, to be followed in turn (late 14th cent.) by Madjapahit, which was the last Hindu empire of Java, and by the Thai king of Ayutthaya. The fall of Madjapahit opened the way for the primacy of a Malay state, Malacca (see MelakaMelaka
or Malacca
, state (1991 pop. 504,502), 640 sq mi (1,658 sq km), Malaysia, S Malay Peninsula, on the Strait of Malacca. Formerly one of the Straits Settlements, it was constituted a state of Malaya in 1957 (see Malaysia).
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). In the 15th cent., the Malays, beginning with the Malaccans, were converted to Islam (which remains the religion of most Malays).

The 16th cent. brought the first Europeans. The Portuguese seized Malacca (1511), and soon afterward Dutch traders appeared in Malayan waters. Malacca fell to the Dutch in 1641. The important British role on the peninsula began with the founding of settlements at PinangPinang
or Penang
, state (1991 pop. 1,065,075), c.400 sq mi (1,040 sq km), Malaysia, on the Strait of Malacca. It consists of Pulau Pinang (an island of 108 sq mi/280 sq km), formerly known as Georgetown; and Province Wellesley (292 sq mi/756 sq km), a strip of
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 (1786) and SingaporeSingapore
, officially Republic of Singapore, republic (2015 est. pop. 5,535,000), 299 sq mi (774 sq km). It consists of the island of Singapore and about 60 small adjacent islands at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, SE Asia.
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 (1819). The coming of the Portuguese had plunged the peninsula into anarchy. The last sultan of Malacca, in flight from the Portuguese, founded a kingdom based on the Riau Archipelago and JohorJohor
or Johore
, state (1991 pop. 2,074,297), 7,360 sq mi (19,062 sq km), at the southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Malaysia, opposite Singapore. It is largely covered with rain forests and swamps.
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, but the rulers of the petty states in the south gradually achieved independence, while the rising power of Siam and an increasingly imperial Britain became rivals. The British established protectorates over several Malay states, and in 1909 the boundary between Siam and Malaya was fixed by Siam's transfer to Great Britain of suzerainty over Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu.

See MalaysiaMalaysia
, independent federation (2015 est. pop. 30,723,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital.
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 and ThailandThailand
, Thai Prathet Thai [land of the free], officially Kingdom of Thailand, constitutional monarchy (2015 est. pop. 68,658,000), 198,455 sq mi (514,000 sq km), Southeast Asia.
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 for the later history of the peninsula.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Malay Peninsula

a peninsula of SE Asia, extending south from the Isthmus of Kra in Thailand to Cape Tanjong Piai in Malaysia: consists of SW Thailand and the states of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Contending with each other to capture the Malay Peninsula / the Portuguese and Dutch Armies started bombing tropical rainforest / I was awoken by a horrible nightmare / and threw the truth 'tender leaves are the food of animals' / into the turbulent rivers / Human beings snatch money and land with their hands / my leaves finally evolved into a killer forever.
With the Jahai and English-speakers living in very different environments and speaking unrelated languages, Majid and co-author Nicole Kruspe, from Lund University in Sweden, turned to two groups in the Malay Peninsula who speak a closely-related language: the Semaq Beri hunter-gatherer community and the Semelai horticultural community that grows rice and other plants.
In the Malay Peninsula, Woods had sufficient time to form an impression of the Malay people.
The conception of the island of Singapore itself has also changed over time, from initial depictions in maps as the land within the Johor River delta, to the more modern conception of an island separated from the Malay Peninsula by the Johor Strait.
Malacca, located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula and next to the Straits of Malacca, played a critical role in sea transportation historically and geographically, he said.
Over 70 ships have been attacked in the Malacca and Singapore straits, on the western side of the Malay Peninsula, this year, the highest number since at least 2008, including at least seven at the end of last week, according to security and anti-piracy groups.
According to Chinese media, a memorandum of co-operation between the two countries has been signed in Guangzhou on May 15 to build the canal across the narrowest part of the Malay Peninsula as part of China's New Maritime Silk Road initiative.
Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles saw the potential in a tiny settlement on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula and knew it would be ideal for a free port.
While most visitors start off their journey into Malaysia from Kuala Lumpur along with some of the most visited locations such as Langkawi and Penang, the Eastern territories hold more landmass and more nature reserves than the whole Malay Peninsula. Visiting the Eastern territories is a delight for a laid back vacation, to get in tune with nature, experience a mixture of activities rarely found in one location and to simply enjoy Malay hospitality.
It also emerged yesterday that the Beijing-bound Boeing 777 vanished from military radar 120 miles after it crossed back over the Malay Peninsula.
A new analysis of radar data from the morning of March 8, as Flight 370 veered off its intended route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing and flew west over the Malay Peninsula and then south over the Indian Ocean, compelled officials to shift the search area Friday to a zone about 1,100 miles west of Perth, Australia.