Davids (1991c: 12) provides an answer: The Cape Muslims did not consider Afrikaans to be a foreign language or the language of the oppressor, but "as a spiritual language, on par with Malayu
The government is just now implementing Malayu
language instruction in schools, some five years after it promised to do so.
While in the first two centuries Aceh took on the role of "successor" to Melaka, later on more effort was made to create an Acehnese identity distinct from the Malayu
. Chapter Five deals with the formation of the Batak identity between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries in Sumatra.
1000 CE) which mentions Malayu
, China, Sanf; Mait, Sribuza, Zabaj, Lamuri, Fansur, Kalah, and Qaqulla; the Mukhtasar al-Aja'ib (c.1000 CE), which records Sanf, Kalah, Jaba, Salahit and Zabaj; Biruni's India (early 11th century), which records Zabaj and Qmar; the work of Marwazi (c.
Budi Utomo identified the site as being associated with Tanjungpura, which he discussed in relation to the Nagarakartagama and Sejarah Malayu
(Budi Utomo 1997:8-9, 49-53).
The educational language policies of Malaysia, with Bahasa Malayu
(BM) as a first (and national) language, a heavy focus on the importance of English as a prominent second, and the exclusion of indigenous languages (there are Chinese or Tamil schools, but these are still not native to the region) from formal education, leaves room for debate on which paradigm is being followed.
Rather, a new bi-nodal structure can be discerned, where Kedah and Jambi (alias Malayu
) appear to have been simultaneous centres of power.
The term itself probably derives from the word, malayu
, and its connection to the centuries old trading language in the region.
Yet the illustrating photographs of men shooting blowpipes and dancing with mandau will remind others of the 1997, 1999, and 2001 unrest in West and Central Kalimantan, when Dayak and Malayu
warriors forcibly evicted Madurese migrants, leaving hundreds dead.
Shellabear, Sajarah Malayu
, or the Malay Annals (Singapore: American Mission, 1898); R.
It sent expeditions south, provoking other powers to protest to China, which in 1295 forbade it to attack Malayu
(8) In Chinese records, beginning with Yijing in the seventh century, 'Malayu
' appears as a more specific kingdom to the north of Srivijaya, absorbed into the latter in the 680s.