Malbork


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Malbork

(mäl`bôrk), Ger. Marienburg, town (1994 est. pop. 40,100), Pomorskie prov., N Poland, on the Nogat River. It is a rail junction with sugar refineries and dairies. Originally a castle founded (1274) by the Teutonic KnightsTeutonic Knights
or Teutonic Order
, German military religious order founded (1190–91) during the siege of Acre in the Third Crusade. It was originally known as the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem.
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, Malbork became the seat of their grand master in 1309. It successfully withstood sieges by the Poles in 1410 and 1454, but in 1457 Malbork was sold to Poland by mercenaries whose pay was in arrears. The town passed to Prussia in 1772. Germany took control of the town in 1920, and it was returned to Poland in 1945. The castle (rebuilt in the 14th and 19th cent.) is one of the finest examples of German secular medieval architecture.

Malbork

 

a city in Poland, in Elbla.g Województwo, situated in the Vistula Delta. Population, 31,100 (1973). The city is a railroad junction and a landing on a branch of the Nogat River. The principal industries are a plant producing ventilators, a flax mill, and various food-processing enterprises, including a sugar refinery, food-concentrate and meat-packing plants, and dairies.

Originally known as Marienburg, the town developed around the castle that was built by the Teutonic Order beginning in 1274 on the east bank of the Nogat River; in 1276 it received urban rights. In 1309 it became the seat of the grand master of the Teutonic Order. Under the Peace of Toruri of 1466, which ended the Thirteen Years’ War (1454-66) between Poland and the Teutonic Order, the city passed to Poland. Malbork was strategically important during the Polish-Swedish Wars of 1626-29 and 1655-60. It was occupied by fascist German forces during World War II and was liberated by the Soviet Army on Jan. 26, 1945.

The Gothic castle of the Teutonic Knights, begun in 1274, has been only partially preserved. The High Castle with its Golden Gate, the Chapter House, and the Chapel of the Virgin Mary date from the 13th and 14th centuries. The Middle Castle with its Royal Hall was built in the course of the 14th century, and the Palace of the Grand Masters, in 1398. The castle walls are connected with the city fortifications. Within the Old Town are the Gothic Church of St. John (14th to 17th centuries) and the 15th-century town hall. The New Town was built in the 17th and 18th centuries.

REFERENCE

Guerquin, B. Zamek w Malborku. Warsaw, 1960.
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