Malcolm X

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Related to Malcolm X: Black Panthers, Stokely Carmichael
Malcolm X
Malcolm Little
BirthplaceOmaha, Nebraska, U.S.
Minister, activist

Malcolm X,

1925–65, militant black leader in the United States, also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, b. Malcolm Little in Omaha, Neb. A petty criminal in Boston and Harlem, he was convicted of burglary (1946) and sent to prison, where he read widely and was introduced to the Black MuslimsBlack Muslims,
African-American religious movement in the United States, split since the late 1970s into the American Society of Muslims and the Nation of Islam. The original group was founded (1930) in Detroit by Wali Farad (or W. D.
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, joining the group and becoming a Muslim minister upon his release in 1952. A charismatic and eloquent spokesman for the doctrines of black nationalism and black separatism, he quickly became very prominent, establishing many new temples in the North, Midwest, and California, and acquiring a following perhaps equaling that of the movement's leader, Elijah MuhammadMuhammad, Elijah,
1897–1975, American black-nationalist and religious leader, b. near Sandersville, Ga. Originally named Elijah Poole, he left home at 16 and worked at various jobs. In 1923 he settled in Detroit and became an automobile assembly-line worker.
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. In 1963 Malcolm was suspended by Muhammad after a speech in which Malcolm suggested that President Kennedy's assassination was a matter of the "chickens coming home to roost." He then formed a rival organization of his own, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. In 1964, after a pilgrimage to Mecca, he announced his conversion to orthodox Sunni Islam and his new belief that there could be brotherhood between black and white. In his Organization of Afro-American Unity, formed after his return, the tone was still that of militant black nationalism but no longer of separation. In Feb., 1965, he was shot and killed in a public auditorium in New York City. His assassins were vaguely identified as Black Muslims, but this remains a matter of controversy.


See his autobiography (as told to A. Haley, 1964) and selected speeches, Malcolm X Speaks (1965); J. H. Clarke, ed., Malcolm X (1969); biographies by P. Goldman (1973, repr. 2013), B. Perry (1992), and M. Marable (2011); studies by M. E. Dyson (1994), J. L. Conyers et al., ed. (2008), and R. Roberts and J. Smith (2016); R. E. Terrill, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010).

X, Malcolm:

see Malcolm XMalcolm X,
1925–65, militant black leader in the United States, also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, b. Malcolm Little in Omaha, Neb. A petty criminal in Boston and Harlem, he was convicted of burglary (1946) and sent to prison, where he read widely and was introduced
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Malcolm X

original name Malcolm Little. 1925--65, US Black civil-rights leader: assassinated

Malcolm X (b. Malcolm Little)

(1925–65) African-American activist; born in Omaha, Nebr. Malcolm claimed his father, a minister and follower of Marcus Garvey, was murdered by racists in Lansing, Mich. (1931) (but at least one researcher claims his father died accidentally). Moving to Boston, Malcolm turned to pimping and drugs as a teenager. He was sentenced to ten years in prison for burglary (1946) where he discovered the antiwhite Black Muslims. Joining the Muslims (1952), he became a recruiter, changed his name, and came to national attention with his writings and through a television documentary (1959), both of which tended to portray him as a threat to white people. Breaking with the Muslims (1964), he founded the Muslim Mosque in an effort to internationalize the Afro-American struggle and journeyed to Muslim lands abroad where he was impressed with their lack of racial bias. Returning to the U.S.A. convinced that whites were not inherently racist, he called himself El-Hajj Malik El Shabazz and formed the Organization of African American Unity, hoping to cooperate with progressive white groups. Before his assassination in the Audubon Ballroom in New York City (March 1965), he came to believe that leaders of the Nation of Islam and powerful elements within the U.S. government wanted him dead; the only legal trial put all the blame on members of the Nation of Islam. Alex Haley helped immortalize him as coauthor of The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965), and Spike Lee's 1992 film renewed interest in the man and his message. He proved as powerful after his death as alive, influencing disparate movements with his positions on black power and neocolonialism, and transforming the consciousness of a generation of African-Americans.
References in periodicals archive ?
com/malcolm-x-assassination-facts-about-civil-rights-icons-death-50-years-after-he-was-1821720) reports , as soon as Malcolm X started to greet the people at Audubon Ballroom, three men - identified as Thomas Hagen, Thomas Johnson and Norman Butler - approached the stage and fired multiple shots at the activist from a close distance.
s Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X and Christianity.
Indeed, as the boxer told Sam Pollard and Judy Richardson in a 1989 interview: "My first impression of Malcolm X was how could a black man talk about the government and white people and act so bold and not be shot at?
Malcolm X preached self-empowerment to African Americans first for Elijah Muhammad's "Nation of Islam" organization, and then broadened his message to the empowerment of all oppressed peoples after turning to true Islam following his pilgrimage to Mecca.
The photo shows Malcolm X holding a rifle as he was trying to protect his family from death threats; his home had been firebombed.
In "Womanizing Malcolm X," Sheila Radford-Hill does a fascinating job of helping us see the "impact of women's agency on his life and work" (64) and "gender as a unit of analysis in the politics of black radicalism" (65).
That is why in a piece that began as a book review, most of the quotes were not from Manning Marable, but directly from the speeches and writings of Malcolm X (not only the Autobiography but the "Message to the Grass Roots," "The Ballot or the Bullet," and the "Harvard Law School Forum"), along with nine other original authors.
He presents reams of evidence that should demote Malcolm X from the exalted standing he enjoys among many progressives of various stripes.
THE TOPIC: Martin Luther King and Malcolm X are probably the two most recognized black political figures of the 20th century.
From Marable's introduction it appears that he has directed his energies to correct what he considers to be the simplistic hagiographic depictions that characterize the emergence of Malcolm X as an icon of popular culture.