chauvinism

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chauvinism

(shō`vənĭzəm), word derived from the name of Nicolas Chauvin, a soldier of the First French Empire. Used first for a passionate admiration of Napoleon, it now expresses exaggerated and aggressive nationalism. As a social phenomenon, chauvinism is essentially modern, becoming marked in the era of acute national rivalries and imperialism beginning in the 19th cent. It has been encouraged by mass communication, originally by the cheap newspaper. Chauvinism exalts consciousness of nationality, spreads hatred of minorities and other nations, and is associated with militarism, imperialism, and racism. In the 1960s, the term "male chauvinist" appeared in the women's liberation movement; it is applied to males who refuse to regard females as equals.

Chauvinism

 

an extreme form of nationalism, involving the advocacy of national exclusivity. Chauvinists place the interests of their own nation above the interests of all others, promote national arrogance, and exacerbate national hatreds and animosities.

The term “chauvinism” first appeared in France. It derives from the name of an aggressive and bellicose recruit in the comedy The Tricolor Cockade (1831), by the brothers J.-H. and C.-T. Cogniard. The recruit, Nicolas Chauvin, was apparently based on a real Nicolas Chauvin, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who was known for his worship of Napoleon and his belief that the emperor had made France great.

The word “chauvinism” was eventually applied to many types of exaggerated nationalism. “Jingoism” came into use in Great Britain in the 1870’s as a synonym. Terms such as “social chauvinism” and “great power chauvinism” have been devised to identify particular types of chauvinism.

Chauvinism flourishes in imperialist countries. Its most extreme manifestation is the antihuman ideology and policies of fascist states. The struggle against chauvinist ideologies and their proponents has always been one of the most important tasks confronting Marxist-Leninist parties.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Rabochii klass i natsional’nyi vopros.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 23.
Lenin, V. I. “Kriticheskie zametki po natsional’nomu voprosu.” Ibid., vol. 24.
Lenin, V. I. “O bor’be s sotsial-shovinizmom.” Ibid. , vol.
26. Lenin, V. I. “Prikrytie sotsial-shovinistskoi politiki internatsionalisticheskimi frazami.” Ibid., vol. 27.
Marksizm-Leninizm o proletarskom internatsionalizme. Moscow, 1969.
Leninizm i natsional’nyi vopros v sovremennykh usloviiakh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

Chauvinism

See also Bigotry, Patriotism.
Chauvin, Nicolas
soldier who passionately admired Napoleon; whence, ultranationalism. [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 518]
Helmer, Torvald
treats wife Nora as an inferior being. [Nor. Lit.: A Doll’s House]
Jingo
legendary second-century empress of Japan, victorious invader of Korea and hence the conjectural eponym of jingoism. [Jap. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
Jingoes
nickname of 19th-century English pro-war party. [Br. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
male chauvinist pig
denigrating designation for a man who treats women as inferiors. [Am. Pop. Culture: Misc.]
References in periodicals archive ?
By virtually naming names in this way, Dargan shed new light upon the ways in which male chauvinism was posing a threat to the revolutionary movement of her day.
As for male chauvinism it would seem that a woman hasn't a ghost of a chance of ever ascending the pinnacle of the Vatican.
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The march was organised by the platform in an effort to raise awareness about a number of key issues, he said: one, that a Cyprus solution was necessary "now", two, that the island's history books had to change and past conflicts had to be discussed openly and honestly, three, to honour the dead and the missing from the conflicts of 1963 and 1974, and four, to demand greater participation of women in the struggle for peace as male chauvinism was part of the problem.
Given these aspects, any biography of Gissing is bound up with Victorian economics: fair enough, but the author is very fond of sweeping statements and pronouncements, e.g on the 'Victorian gender system' and 'male chauvinism'.
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"SHE was much tougher than I though...ust too fast and just too good..." Thus male chauvinism acknowledged woman's lib.
"Male chauvinism is everywhere, whether in society or in the movies," she said.
On hip-hop music as a mirror of Black male chauvinism:
Encouraged by Moholy-Nagy she joined the metal workshop, being the only woman there, and soon rose to prominence despite the male chauvinism of her colleagues, becoming acting director.