Mandingo

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Mandingo

 

(1) The self-designation (also, Malinke, Man-ding, Wangara, Mandinga, Mali) of a group of peoples living in West Africa—in southern Gambia, northern and northeastern Republic of Guinea, western Mali, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Senegal, and Portuguese Guinea (Bissau)—who speak the Malinke language. The group also includes the Koranko and Wasulunka in the Republic of Guinea, the Manyanka in Liberia, and several other groups.

(2) A name used primarily in French works to refer to a large group of closely related peoples: the Malinke proper, or Manding, Mandinga), the Bambara (Banmana), and the Dinla. All of them live along the upper course of the Senegal and Niger rivers; they constitute the main population of western Mali, northeastern Republic of Guinea, southern and eastern Senegal, and certain regions of the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Portuguese Guinea (Bissau). Total population, approximately 4.2 million (1970, estimate).

The Mandingo speak languages related to the northern group of Mande languages. Most of the Mandingo are Muslims; old animistic beliefs and ancestor worship are still practiced in some areas. The chief occupation is farming (millet, corn, rice, kidney beans); livestock raising (goats, sheep, donkeys, poultry) is poorly developed; the Diula engage in trade. The basic form of Mandingo rural village settlements is a group of mud huts surrounded by a mud wall. A kindred group, usually a large patriarchal family, lives in each village. Traditional social relations, such as secret societies, caste differences, and age-class systems, are still partially retained in many regions. However, all of these ancient institutions are gradually disappearing.

According to legend, the historical center of the formation of the Mandingo peoples was located along the upper reaches of the Niger River, where, in the eighth century, the political unification of the Mandingo was achieved with the founding of the Mali state.

REFERENCES

Sund’iatta: Mandingskii epos. Leningrad-Moscow, 1963. (Translated from French.)
Labouret, H. Les Manding et leur langue. Paris, 1934.
Labouret, H. Paysans d’Afrique occidentale. Paris [1941].

D. A. OL’DEROGGE


Mandingo

 

a group of languages that includes the Bambara, Malinke, and Diula dialects (Mande-tan group of the Mande languages). Malinke is spoken in Senegal, Sudan, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Gambia, and Guinea (1.1 million people); Bambara is spoken in Senegal, Sudan, Guinea, and Upper Volta; Diula is spoken in the Republic of the Ivory Coast and Upper Volta. There are approximately 4.2 million speakers of Mandingo languages (1970, estimate).

Vowels are distinguished according to degree of opening (degree of aperture of the speech passage), for example, bere “stick,” bεrε “stone.” Other phonetic features include the presence of long vowels (ba “big,” “mother”), nasalized vowels (bo “to go out,” b5 “room”), and the labialized consonant gb. Suffixes are used in word formation and for inflection. Concept alienability and inalienability categories occur.

REFERENCES

Delafosse, M. La Langue mandingue et ses dialectes, vol. 1. Paris, 1929.
Delaforge. Grammaire et méthode Bambara, 6th ed. Paris, 1947.

I. N. TOPOROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
(1.) From Plotzk to Boston (Boston: Clarke, 1899); "Malinke's Atonement," Atlantic Monthly 108 (September 1911): 300-319.
Los lele son un pequeno grupo etnico, casi absorbidos por los malinke y los kissi, que viven en la region de Kissidougou de Guinea, a lo largo de la frontera con Sierra Leona.
C'est tout particulierement le cas pour le milieu malinke, avec l'epopee de Sunjata qui celebre l'empire medieval du Mali ainsi que celles qui racontent les royaumes malinke de Gambie; le milieu bambara, avec l'epopee de Segou; les milieux peul et songhay.
Le prenom du protagoniste du roman de Kourouma, Fama Doumbuya, a un signifie specifique en malinke (ex.1): il designe un chef, un proprietaire terrien.
Los principales son el Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Tuareg 7%, Songhai 6%.
An early example of this is Camara Laye, the son of a Malinke tribesman who published the Kafkaesque novel The Radiance of the King in 1954.
Malinke in his book, Color; Environment and Human Response, offers guidelines specifically for integrating color in the educational environment.
His base of support are the Konianke (also known as Malinke), the country's second largest ethnic group.
The ruling party draws on the Malinke community for much of its support while the opposition is dominated by the Peul ethnic group.
(25) His research examined the African origins of Gullah--did Gullah in sounds and words embody elements from Yoruba, Ibo, Hausa, Fante, Malinke, Wolof, and the like?
Foday Musa Suso grew up in Gambia, Africa, in a family of Malinke musicians.
The deaths came after reports that four people were killed in an attack late Thursday in the Kokoma district of Duekoue, inhabited mostly by ethnic Malinke.