Tenderness over the medial malleolus
, lateral malleolus
, fifth metatarsal, and navicular is absent.
(AJA: ankle joint angle (90[degrees] = anatomical position), KJA: knee joint angle (0[degrees] = full extension position), L: lower leg length (linear distance [mm] from the popliteal fossa to the lateral malleolus
of the ankle joint)
All patients underwent an anatomical fixation strategy performed by a senior member of the staff, which included open reduction internal fixation of lateral, medial, and posterior malleolus
Case 3 revealed thickening and fissuring of the skin of the soles along with psoriasiform erythematous scaly plaques on dorsal surface of both big toes and left lateral malleolus
. Diffuse thickening of the skin of palms were present in all cases.
The length of the leg was also measured from the middle of the knee joint cavity till the tip of the lateral malleolus
. Swiss Vernier caliber (of 0.05 mm accuracy) was used to calculate the diameters of the major blood vessels especially the fibular artery.
An incision is made posteriorly of the lateral malleolus
and, after identification and protection of the sural nerve, capsulotomy is performed to find the os trigonum or hypertrophic posterior process, which is subsequently removed.
The foot and ankle are the most common locations of stress fracture, and the prevalence is highest at the tibia, calcaneus, and metatarsals, followed by the navicular, fibular, medial malleolus
, and other tarsal bones [5, 6].
* On the sagittal plane are observed: lateral malleolus
, the axis of knee joint and the axis of hip joint.
Using the vertical displacement of the left lateral malleolus
between the standing and take-off positions in the calibrated videos, the authors have quantified a distance of 10.8 [+ or -] 1.0 cm (95% CI 10.6 to 11.1).
The examinations were focused on the study of the tibial nerve at the medial aspect of the ankle, right above the tibial malleolus
. Both sides were imaged in every subject.
Hospital number: Surname Name Scan date: Involvement (yes/no) Subluxation (yes/no) Pattern I Pattern II Pattern III Pattern IV Pattern V Not applicable Semiquantitative score BMO score (0-2) Fracture score (0-2) Medial sesamoid Lateral sesamoid Proximal phalanx 1 Proximal phalanx 2 Proximal phalanx 3 Proximal phalanx 4 Proximal phalanx 5 Metatarsal 1 Metatarsal 2 Metatarsal 3 Metatarsal 4 Metatarsal 5 Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Cuboid Navicular Talus Calcaneum Tibial plafond Medial malleolus
Total score = sum of all scores Table 2: Interobserver agreement for the total BMO score and total fracture score for all observers and for the three pairs of observers.
She had a history of myalgias with elevated C-reactive protein but with normal creatine kinase and a painful necrotic wound at the medial malleolus
of her left ankle in the preceding years; these problems had responded well to prednisolone and leflunomide as steroid-sparing agent.