Mamelukes

(redirected from Mameluke)
Also found in: Dictionary.
Related to Mameluke: Mamaluke
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Mamelukes

 

warrior-slaves (made up of Turkomans, Georgians, Circassians, and other Caucasian peoples in Egypt), which formed the guard for the rulers of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1250). In 1250 the command elite of the Mamelukes overthrew the Ayyubites and seized power. There were two Mameluke dynasties—the Bahrites (primarily of Turkoman origin; reigned from 1250 to 1390) and the Burjites (primarily from Caucasia; reigned from 1390 to 1517).

The Mamelukes (whose numbers varied from 9,000 to 12,000) were subordinate to 24 beys—important feudal lords who owned the best lands and state-controlled craft enterprises and received the income from customs houses. Under the Mamelukes in the 13th and 14th centuries the system of government was reorganized, the irrigation system was improved, and there was a cultural upsurge. The Mamelukes preserved the military and feudal-estate system of their predecessors.

In the 13th century the Mamelukes routed the Mongols (in a battle near Ayn Jalut on Sept. 3, 1260), pushed the Crusaders out of Palestine and Syria (1268), and inflicted a resounding defeat on the Ismaili Assassins (1273). The most notable Mameluke sultans were Aibak (reigned 1250-57), Baybars I (1260-77), Qalaun (1279 or 1280-90), Barsbay (1422-38), and Ghuri (1501-16).

In 1516-17 the troops of the Turkish sultan Selim I conquered Syria, Egypt, and Palestine, putting an end to Mameluke supremacy. After the Turkish conquest, part of the land in Egypt was left to the Mameluke feudal lords, who were obligated to pay tribute to the Turkish pasha in Cairo. The weakening of the Ottoman Empire that began at the end of the 17th century permitted the Mamelukes to reassert their power on a de facto basis. The Mamelukes were not deprived of their lands until 1808, during the rule of the Egyptian pasha Muhammad Ali (reigned 1805-48); in 1811 the Mameluke beys were executed.

REFERENCES

Istoriia stran zarubezhnoi Azii v srednie veka. Moscow, 1970. Chapter 23.
Pevzner, S. B. “Ikta v Egipte v kontse XIII-XIV vv.” In the collection Pamiati akademika I. Iu. Krachkovskogo. Leningrad, 1958.
Semenova, L. A. Salakh ad-din i mamliuki v Egipte. Moscow, 1966.
Poliak, A. N. Feudalism in Egypt, Syria, Palestine and the Lebanon, 1250-1900. London, 1939.
Darrag, A. L’Egypte: Sous le regne de Barsbey. Damascus, 1961.

L. A. SEMENOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Mameluke mosque of Taynal is the crown jewel of the Islamic architecture in the city, and in Lebanon at large.
Huigen, "First principles of the MameLuke multi-actor modelling framework for land use change, illustrated with a Philippine case study," Journal of Environmental Management, vol.
Frankish pottery was heavily influenced by the surrounding and contemporary Arab pottery, and mimicked it in both form and technique, so it's sometimes difficult to distinguish between Frankish vases and Arab or Mameluke ones.
Mameluke Slaithwaite residents rally opposition to Aldi development Long overdue for Slaithwaite to have a decent supermarket and it could be far worse - it could be Tesco wanting to build there.
The Mameluke Sultan Baibars who ruled Jerusalem over the two centuries after Hakim was just as vicious toward non-Muslims.
The mosque and madrassa (school) of Sultan Hassan are a massive Mameluke era compound located near the Citadel in Cairo.
His sword, a Georgian Agate Hilted Mameluke presentation sabre made by Salter & Co, has two large panels originally containing inscriptions, which have now been removed.
His essay is a response to an Egyptian-set 1913 novel, The Lost Mameluke, by David M Beddoe.
His capture of much of the Arab peninsula--in particular the Holy Places of Mecca and Medina--inevitably made the Ottoman Empire more overtly Islamic, and it was during his reign that the Ottomans claimed the Islamic Caliphate from the withering Mameluke state in Egypt.
Summary: The Old City of Tripoli contains magnificent specimens of Mameluke architecture, which have lasted for centuries.
For the next 1,300 years, a succession of Arab, Mameluke, and Ottoman caliphs, beys, and sultans ruled the country.