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Ray, Man,1890–1976, American photographer, painter, and sculptor, b. Philadelphia. Along with Marcel DuchampDuchamp, Marcel
, 1887–1968, French painter, brother of Raymond Duchamp-Villon and half-brother of Jacques Villon. Duchamp is noted for his cubist-futurist painting Nude Descending a Staircase,
..... Click the link for more information. , Ray was a founder of the DadaDada
, international nihilistic movement among European artists and writers that lasted from 1916 to 1922. Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it originated in Zürich with a 1916 party at the Cabaret Voltaire and the
..... Click the link for more information. movement in New York and Paris. He is celebrated for his later surrealist paintings and photography. Among his inventions is the rayograph, a photograph obtained by the direct application of objects of varying opacity to a light-sensitive plate. His works include the painting The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with Her Shadows and the enigmatic sculpture Gift (both: Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). Ray also made several surrealist films, of which L'Étoile de Mer (1928) is the best known.
See his autobiography (1963). See also studies by N. Baldwin (1988), M. Foresta (1988), R. Penrose (1989), and E. C. Garcia (2011); Man Ray Fautographe (CD-ROM, 1996).