Man Ray

(redirected from Man Ray (surrealist))
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Ray, Man,

1890–1976, American photographer, painter, and sculptor, b. Philadelphia. Along with Marcel DuchampDuchamp, Marcel
, 1887–1968, French painter, brother of Raymond Duchamp-Villon and half-brother of Jacques Villon. Duchamp is noted for his cubist-futurist painting Nude Descending a Staircase,
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, Ray was a founder of the DadaDada
or Dadaism
, international nihilistic movement among European artists and writers that lasted from 1916 to 1922. Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it originated in Zürich with a 1916 party at the Cabaret Voltaire and the
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 movement in New York and Paris. He is celebrated for his later surrealist paintings and photography. Among his inventions is the rayograph, a photograph obtained by the direct application of objects of varying opacity to a light-sensitive plate. His works include the painting The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with Her Shadows and the enigmatic sculpture Gift (both: Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). Ray also made several surrealist films, of which L'Étoile de Mer (1928) is the best known.


See his autobiography (1963). See also studies by N. Baldwin (1988), M. Foresta (1988), R. Penrose (1989), and E. C. Garcia (2011); Man Ray Fautographe (CD-ROM, 1996).

Man Ray (b. Emmanuel Rudnitsky)

(1890–1976) painter, photographer; born in Philadelphia. A self-taught artist, he took odd jobs in advertising before leaving for Paris, where he was a commercial photographer (1921–39). Inspired by Dadaism, he used the Rayogram, a photo developed by sunlight, to combine painting and photography, defying the conventions of both. He taught photography in Hollywood (1939–50) before returning to Paris for good.