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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a specific social stratum of modern capitalist society, including hired professional managers (enterprise directors and directors of separate subdivisions of concerns, trusts, syndicates, and so on). Even in the mid-19th century K. Marx noted the importance of the professional manager, whose very existence proves the parasitism of the capitalist proprietor, who is removed from participation in the production process. The increasing number of corporations has significantly strengthened the role of managers.

Under conditions of modern state-monopoly capitalism there has been a sharp increase in the monopolies’ need for skilled specialists in the area of enterprise organization and management. Managers have received broad independence in administration and in the resolution of highly important financial and economic questions. In many developed capitalist countries (including the USA and France) special schools for skilled administrators have been organized, usually at the major universities.

Certain bourgeois scholars (for example, G. Means and A. Berle of the USA) argue that the enhanced role of professional managers in contemporary capitalist society and the transfer of management functions to professional managers prove that owners of capital have lost control over production and that capitalism itself has been saved from its inherent defects and contradictions. The flimsiness of bourgeois theories about the separation of power from the right of capital ownership becomes apparent in analyzing the actual functioning of capitalist enterprises. Managers do not have power in relation to owners of capital, who continue to exercise decisive influence on the management process.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
It would not have surprised Miss Garth if she had discovered her pupil in the act of making terms with the manager for her forthcoming appearance in a public theater.
"This is not the last time the young lady will be concerned in private theatricals, I'll answer for it," said the manager. "And if a superintendent is wanted on the next occasion, she has kindly promised to say a good word for me.
The card contained nothing but the manager's name, and, under it, the name and address of a theatrical agent in London.
In due course of time, the narrative, passing from mouth to mouth, reached the ears of the manager. He instantly saw that the credit of the hotel was in danger, unless something was done to retrieve the character of the room numbered Fourteen.
Having warned the servants to beware of gossiping with travellers, on the subject of the changed numbers, under penalty of being dismissed, the manager composed his mind with the reflection that he had done his duty to his employers.
Nicholas therefore proposed that they should break up at once, but the manager would by no means hear of it; vowing that he had promised himself the pleasure of inviting his new acquaintance to share a bowl of punch, and that if he declined, he should deem it very unhandsome behaviour.
Nicholas was not much disposed to sleep--being in truth too anxious-- so, after a little demur, he accepted the offer, and having exchanged a shake of the hand with the young Crummleses, and the manager having on his part bestowed a most affectionate benediction on Smike, he sat himself down opposite to that gentleman by the fireside to assist in emptying the bowl, which soon afterwards appeared, steaming in a manner which was quite exhilarating to behold, and sending forth a most grateful and inviting fragrance.
But, despite the punch and the manager, who told a variety of stories, and smoked tobacco from a pipe, and inhaled it in the shape of snuff, with a most astonishing power, Nicholas was absent and dispirited.
A few minutes passed and again the voice of the Manager called:
Then, in order to teach the Donkey that it was not good manners to bray before the public, the Manager hit him on the nose with the handle of the whip.
"May I ask," said the manager, "are you the same Denver who commanded at one time on the North American station?"
Every time a door opened, all eyes there turned towards it and back to the manager of the "Epoque," who sat impassive in his place.