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(mänäs`), town and oasis, central Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, on the Manas River, in the Dzungarian basin. It is the center of a large mechanized-farm area. Wheat, millet, sugar beets, melons, and cotton are grown. Since 1952 an extensive irrigation project, directed by the Chinese army, has reclaimed much acreage for cultivation. Oil deposits are in the area. The name sometimes appears as Ma-na-ssu.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a river in northeastern India and Bhutan, with its sources in China. A right-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra. Length, about 400 km. The Manas rises in the Himalayas, which it crosses in a longitudinal valley; it then enters an alluvial lowland and flows along a broad valley in an undulating riverbed. High water occurs in the spring and summer, owing to snow and glacial meltwaters and monsoonal rains. There is frequent flooding. The river is used for irrigation.



the epic of the Kirghiz people.

Manas contains more than 500,000 lines in verse. Over the course of centuries, the Kirghiz people preserved the epic in oral form. The first prerevolutionary written records of Manas date to 1856, when the Kazakh scholar and ethnographer Ch. Ch. Valikhanov set down the excerpt “The Funeral Banquet in Commemoration of Koketei.” In 1862 and 1869, the Russian scholar Academician V. V. Radlov also wrote down episodes from the epic. A complete written version of Manas became possible only after the October Revolution of 1917. In the archives of the Academy of Sciences of the Kirghiz SSR, there are more than 18 variants collected from different reciters of the epic, who are called manaschi.

Scholars have still not arrived at a single opinion concerning the chronological origin of the epic. Manas recounts the heroic deeds of Manas in his defense of the Kirghiz land from foreign invaders. The parts “Semetei” (Manas’ son) and “Seitek” (Semetei’s son) are links in a single epic trilogy.


Manas: Kïskartïlïp-birik-tirilgen variant, vols. 1-3. Frunze, 1958-60.
Kirgizskii geroicheskii epos “Manas.” Moscow, 1961.


Auezov, M. “Kirgizskii geroicheskii epos ‘Manas.’” In Mysli raznykh let. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Kerimzhanova, B. ”Semetei” i “Seitek.” Frunze, 1961.
Kydyrbaeva, R. Z. K probleme traditsionnogo i indrndual’nogo v epose “Manas.” Frunze, 1967.
Mamïirov, M. Sayakbay Karalaevdin “Manas” ëposunun ideyal ïk-körkörmduk dzgdchulugu. Frunze, 1962.
Mamitbekov, Z., and Ë. Abdïldaev. “Manas” ëposunun izildïïnön këë bir maseleleri. Frunze, 1966.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Minister of Culture, Information and Tourism, Azamat Zhamankulov, said that local investors express interest in the cooperation on the restoration of Manas Ayili in a new format.
The book about Manas epic was written in Kyrgyz language on the basis of classical variant of Sagynbai Orozbakov.
It was also decided in the agreement that UoS and Manas University would carry out joint research projects whereas Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research Center of the latter and Department of Botany of the former would closely cooperate in the fields of joint project, research activity and researchers mobility.
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Otorbaev also said that the US must withdraw its military facilities, personnel and equipment prior the deadline and no US military presence must be left in Manas after July 11.
Whether the Manas base will be closed or not has almost become an endless story.
Manas will use the loan to acquire a licence for geological exploration of coal in the Eastern Kokkia area of the Toguz-Toro district, Jalal-Abad region, Leed said.Country: Kyrgyzstan, Sector: Petroleum/Natural Gas/CoalTarget: Manas Coal Limited Liability CompanyBuyer: Leed Petroleum plcDeal size in USD: 395,500Type: Corporate acquisitionFinancing: All-stockStatus: AgreedComment: The deal size does not include the value of additional warrants to be issued.
Defense Secretary Robert Gates said that while there are alternatives to Manas Transit Center, he was hopeful that the U.S.
Mukharji's exhibition is titled The Cradle of Rivers -- Kailas and Manas .
It may seem odd to base a UN year on a little-known epic poem, but not only are Manas and its eponymous hero profoundly significant symbols of national identity for the Kyrgyz; the epic is also 'a gold-mine for world literature', according to Dan Prior, an American expert on Kyrgyzstan, one of the few Westerners with any real knowledge of the country's culture.
The Manas and Chingiz Aitmatov National Academy will promote scientific, technical, and art history studies, the dissemination and popularization of those intransient spiritual, moral and ethical values in the Manas epic, the Kyrgyz folk epic culture, the artistic heritage of Chingiz Aitmatov, the organization, conduct and participation in scientific practical, scientific and technical conferences, projects, competitions, symposia and other events, publishing research and scientific pieces and serial thematic publications, production of audiovisual educational materials.