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(măncho͞o`kwō), former country, comprising the three provinces of NE China, traditionally called Manchuria. The Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931 and founded Manchukuo in 1932. Changchun, the capital, was renamed Xinjing [Chinese,=new capital]. Pu YiPu Yi
or Henry Pu-yi,
Manchu Aisin Gioro, 1906–67, last emperor (1908–12) of China, under the reign name Hsuan T'ung. After his abdication, the new republican government granted him a large government pension and permitted him to live in the
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, last of the Manchu (Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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) dynasty of China, ruled as regent and emperor. Manchukuo, ostensibly an independent Manchu state, was a Japanese puppet-state. Of the major countries only Japan, Italy, and Germany extended diplomatic recognition; few foreigners were allowed into Manchukuo. The Japanese military kept strict control of the administration and fought a continuing guerrilla war with native resistance groups. To develop Manchukuo as a war base, the Japanese greatly expanded industry and railroads. After World War II, Chinese sovereignty was reasserted over the area.



a puppet state created by the Japanese imperialists in Northeast China—Manchuria. It existed from March 1932 until August 1945. Manchukuo was exploited as a colony and used as a military base of operations for aggression against the rest of the territory of China, the USSR, and the Mongolian People’s Republic. Area, more than 1 million sq km; population, about 30 million. The capital was Ch’angch’un, which was renamed Hsinching (New Capital).

Having established a pretext by accusing the Chinese of destroying the roadbed of the South Manchurian Railroad, which belonged to Japan, in the Shenyang (Mukden) region, Japan sent troops into Northeast China on the night of Sept. 18, 1931. Following orders from the Kuomintang government, the Chinese troops did not offer resistance. As a result, in a matter of a few months, with virtually no opposition, Japan took over the entire territory of China’s three northeastern provinces (and in 1934 the province of Jehol as well) and installed a puppet administration there, which in March 1932 proclaimed the formation of “independent” Manchukuo. P’u I, the last emperor of the Manchurian Ch’ing dynasty (which ruled in China between 1644 and 1911; the formal renunciation of the throne took place in February 1912), became the ruler (“chief executive”) of Manchukuo. P’u I had connections with Japanese intelligence. On Mar. 1, 1934, he was declared emperor of Manchukuo. In fact, all the affairs of Manchukuo were directed by Japanese advisers and civil servants, who occupied most of the important positions. The Hsiehhohui Society (the Society of Consent) was formed by the Japanese and carried on intensive propaganda for the idea of “Japan’s great mission in Asia”; it played a large part in ideological work with the population.

A military-police regime was instituted in Manchukuo. During the occupation of Northeast China the Japanese militarists increased the size of the part of the Kwantung Army that was stationed in Manchukuo from 12,000 to 780,000 men. (The army of the puppet state was raised to 170,000.) In addition, they created a system of fortified regions on the border with the USSR and constructed a network of strategic highways, railroads, airfields, and other military objectives. Military provocations against the USSR and the Mongolian People’s Republic were carried out by Japan from the territory of Manchukuo numerous times between 1933 and 1939; among them were the major provocations in 1938 near Lake Khasan and in 1939 in the region of the Khalkhin-Gol River.

Japan plundered the natural wealth of Northeast China and established various enterprises to extract and process natural raw materials and produce pig iron, steel, and synthetic fuel for Japan’s own military needs. Compulsory labor and a system of agricultural shipments at low prices were instituted. The best land was turned over to Japanese colonists. The harsh exploitation and police brutality caused the local population to resist. From 1932 onward there were many operating partisan detachments; in 1935 they were united in the Northeast Combined Anti-Japanese Army, which was led by the Chinese communists. By 1941, however, most of the partisan detachments had been crushed by the Japanese. Korean partisan detachments also operated in the regions bordering on Korea.

In August 1945 in the concluding phase of World War II (1939-45), Northeast China was liberated from Japanese occupation by the Soviet Army, bringing an end to the existence of Manchukuo.


Sapozhnikov, B. G. Iapono-kitaiskaia voina i kolonial’naia politika laponii v Kitae (1937-1941). Moscow, 1970.
P’u I. Pervaia polovina moei zhizni. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from Chinese.)



, Manchoukuo
a former state of E Asia (1932--45), consisting of the three provinces of old Manchuria and Jehol
References in periodicals archive ?
By the time of the Japanese Army invasion of China in 1937, Japanese opium smugglers controlled the market (Ahlers 1940; `Manchuria Opium and Heroin' 1936) and catered to an estimated 20 million opium addicts (`Government Monopolies in Manchoukuo' 1938).
The Japanese were so blatant in trafficking opium that the Manchoukuo dollar displayed a flowering poppy emblem (Inglis 1975; Meng 1940).
The Opium Supply Establishment--a bureaucratic organization of the Japanese puppet government in Manchoukuo (Merrill 1942), Western China (China Information Committee 1938), and Southern China `Manchoukuo Empire' 1935; Merrill 1937)--had a sales quota of 3,750 ounces of opium per day (Bates 1942).
(To read propaganda statements by the Japanese imperial government on this issue, see, `Government Monopolies in Manchoukuo' 1938; Nagashima 1939); before the Japanese occupation of Northern China, however, the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek profited from drug sales (Marshall 1976; McCoy 1992; Walker 1991).
`Government Monopolies in Manchoukuo' (1938), Contemporary Manchuria, 2/2: 13-38.