Manchukuo


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Manchukuo

(măncho͞o`kwō), former country, comprising the three provinces of NE China, traditionally called Manchuria. The Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931 and founded Manchukuo in 1932. Changchun, the capital, was renamed Xinjing [Chinese,=new capital]. Pu YiPu Yi
or Henry Pu-yi,
Manchu Aisin Gioro, 1906–67, last emperor (1908–12) of China, under the reign name Hsuan T'ung. After his abdication, the new republican government granted him a large government pension and permitted him to live in the
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, last of the Manchu (Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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) dynasty of China, ruled as regent and emperor. Manchukuo, ostensibly an independent Manchu state, was a Japanese puppet-state. Of the major countries only Japan, Italy, and Germany extended diplomatic recognition; few foreigners were allowed into Manchukuo. The Japanese military kept strict control of the administration and fought a continuing guerrilla war with native resistance groups. To develop Manchukuo as a war base, the Japanese greatly expanded industry and railroads. After World War II, Chinese sovereignty was reasserted over the area.

Manchukuo

 

a puppet state created by the Japanese imperialists in Northeast China—Manchuria. It existed from March 1932 until August 1945. Manchukuo was exploited as a colony and used as a military base of operations for aggression against the rest of the territory of China, the USSR, and the Mongolian People’s Republic. Area, more than 1 million sq km; population, about 30 million. The capital was Ch’angch’un, which was renamed Hsinching (New Capital).

Having established a pretext by accusing the Chinese of destroying the roadbed of the South Manchurian Railroad, which belonged to Japan, in the Shenyang (Mukden) region, Japan sent troops into Northeast China on the night of Sept. 18, 1931. Following orders from the Kuomintang government, the Chinese troops did not offer resistance. As a result, in a matter of a few months, with virtually no opposition, Japan took over the entire territory of China’s three northeastern provinces (and in 1934 the province of Jehol as well) and installed a puppet administration there, which in March 1932 proclaimed the formation of “independent” Manchukuo. P’u I, the last emperor of the Manchurian Ch’ing dynasty (which ruled in China between 1644 and 1911; the formal renunciation of the throne took place in February 1912), became the ruler (“chief executive”) of Manchukuo. P’u I had connections with Japanese intelligence. On Mar. 1, 1934, he was declared emperor of Manchukuo. In fact, all the affairs of Manchukuo were directed by Japanese advisers and civil servants, who occupied most of the important positions. The Hsiehhohui Society (the Society of Consent) was formed by the Japanese and carried on intensive propaganda for the idea of “Japan’s great mission in Asia”; it played a large part in ideological work with the population.

A military-police regime was instituted in Manchukuo. During the occupation of Northeast China the Japanese militarists increased the size of the part of the Kwantung Army that was stationed in Manchukuo from 12,000 to 780,000 men. (The army of the puppet state was raised to 170,000.) In addition, they created a system of fortified regions on the border with the USSR and constructed a network of strategic highways, railroads, airfields, and other military objectives. Military provocations against the USSR and the Mongolian People’s Republic were carried out by Japan from the territory of Manchukuo numerous times between 1933 and 1939; among them were the major provocations in 1938 near Lake Khasan and in 1939 in the region of the Khalkhin-Gol River.

Japan plundered the natural wealth of Northeast China and established various enterprises to extract and process natural raw materials and produce pig iron, steel, and synthetic fuel for Japan’s own military needs. Compulsory labor and a system of agricultural shipments at low prices were instituted. The best land was turned over to Japanese colonists. The harsh exploitation and police brutality caused the local population to resist. From 1932 onward there were many operating partisan detachments; in 1935 they were united in the Northeast Combined Anti-Japanese Army, which was led by the Chinese communists. By 1941, however, most of the partisan detachments had been crushed by the Japanese. Korean partisan detachments also operated in the regions bordering on Korea.

In August 1945 in the concluding phase of World War II (1939-45), Northeast China was liberated from Japanese occupation by the Soviet Army, bringing an end to the existence of Manchukuo.

REFERENCES

Sapozhnikov, B. G. Iapono-kitaiskaia voina i kolonial’naia politika laponii v Kitae (1937-1941). Moscow, 1970.
P’u I. Pervaia polovina moei zhizni. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from Chinese.)

V. P. ILIUSHECHKIN

Manchukuo

, Manchoukuo
a former state of E Asia (1932--45), consisting of the three provinces of old Manchuria and Jehol
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While recounting Kishi's career in Manchukuo, Hideo Kobayashi points out that the GHQ/SCAP knew that Kishi was keenly aware of the postwar paradigm shift from 'suzerain and colony' to 'anti-communism and economic development'.
See, e.g., Prasenjit Duara, Sovereignty and Authenticity: Manchukuo and the East Asian Modern (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003); Rana Mitter, The Manchurian Myth: Nationalism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Modern China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000); Louise Young, Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); and Yoshihisa Tak Matsusaka, The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001).
I have found photographs from this period showing Manchukuo soldiers armed with the German Reichrevolver M.79, which were probably obtained along with other surplus weapons from German arms dealers.
Due to its putative association with the colonizers, it also aroused a vehement debate over the predominant themes, styles and orientations of Manchukuo literature as well as how to treat the paradoxical influence of Japanese culture.
According to Etsuo Kotani, Japanese assistant military attache in Moscow who arrived at the end of January 1935, the Soviet attitudes toward Japan and Japanese were 'very friendly' in general, due to the conclusion of the sales agreement of CER between the Soviet Union and Manchukuo on 21st January.
The turn of the century saw the influx of Korean independence activists and my great grandfather who drove trucks for his Japanese overlords in the puppet state of Manchukuo.
In the 1930s, he assumed the title of chief executive of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
(11) Ello implicaria que la Espana del general Franco, unico regimen al que podia aplicarsele tal clausula en aquel momento--a excepcion del de Puyi en el Manchukuo, titere de un Japon todavia no derrotado en armas--, no fuese aceptada dentro de la nueva organizacion mundial.
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Born in 1917, Park trained at the Japanese Military Academy, serving as a lieutenant in the Japanese protectorate of Manchukuo. He was an exemplary soldier, and Eckert attributes Park's success to the discipline and training he received from the Japanese military.
Only nine countries replied to recognize the Republic of the Philippines: Japan, Manchukuo, China, Croatia, Burma, Thailand, Italy, Germany and Slovakia.
(21) Indeed, the US led the way in isolating Japan, denouncing Japanese efforts to establish a colonial state in China (Manchukuo) in 1932, calling for a "quarantine" of Japan (1937), and waging war by proxy by arming Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist army.