Manchurian Incident


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Manchurian Incident

or

Mukden Incident,

1931, confrontation that gave Japan the impetus to set up a puppet government in Manchuria. After the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5), Japan replaced Russia as the dominant foreign power in S Manchuria. By the late 1920s the Japanese feared that unification of China under the Kuomintang party would imperil Japanese interests in Manchuria. This view was confirmed when the Manchurian general Chang Hsüeh-liangChang Hsüeh-liang
or Zhang Xueliang
, 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name.
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, a recent convert to the Kuomintang, refused to halt construction of railway and harbor facilities in competition with the South Manchurian RailwaySouth Manchurian Railway,
Japanese-developed enterprise, with a trackage of 701 mi (1128 km). The line from Changchun to Lüshun (Port Arthur), originally belonging to the Russian-built Chinese Eastern Railway, was part of Japan's indemnity in the Russo-Japanese War
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, referring Japan to the Nationalist central government. When a bomb of unknown origin ripped the Japanese railway near Shenyang (then known as Mukden), the Japanese Kwantung army guarding the railway used the incident as a pretext to occupy S Manchuria (Sept., 1931). Despite Japanese cabinet opposition and a pledge before the League of Nations to withdraw to the railway zone, the army completed the occupation of Manchuria and proclaimed the puppet state of ManchukuoManchukuo
, former country, comprising the three provinces of NE China, traditionally called Manchuria. The Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931 and founded Manchukuo in 1932. Changchun, the capital, was renamed Xinjing [Chinese,=new capital].
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 (Feb., 1932). See Sino-Japanese War, SecondSino-Japanese War, Second,
1937–45, conflict between Japanese and Chinese forces for control of the Chinese mainland. The war sapped the Nationalist government's strength while allowing the Communists to gain control over large areas through organization of guerrilla units.
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.

Bibliography

See T. Yoshihashi, Conspiracy at Mukden (1963); S. N. Ogata, Defiance in Manchuria (1964).

References in periodicals archive ?
They felt betrayed when he urged the Japanese people to "study and learn from the history of this war, starting with the Manchurian Incident of 1931." That was considered a rebuke to the argument that Japan's initial incursions into China were an act of self-defence.
Chapters are: Dairen, a city like no other; sovereignty and self-governance; expanding imperial privilege; a leasehold based on law; self-governance, old and new; settler politics as a mass movement; saving Manchuria; the Manchurian Incident; Dairen versus Shinkyo ideology; conclusion: Dairen and Shanghai.
Choi Namsun's friendliness to Japan has found space in his essays, "Reading," "Chunsanyugi 1 and 2," "Baekjakjae Banil," "Manchurian Incident and Education." (25) These essays were written between when he declared nationalism and when he supported Japan openly.
The result was episodes like the Manchurian Incident of 1931, in which Japanese forces in China took military action in defiance of the civilian government's policy.
Chinese held anti-Japan protests in Beijing and other cities on Tuesday, the 81st anniversary of the start of the 1931 Mukden Incident, also known as the Manchurian Incident, Japan's pretext for invading northeastern China.
have all reportedly suspended operations in the country ahead of the anniversary of the Mukden Incident, also known as the Manchurian Incident, which led to the Japanese invasion of northeastern China.
The series of events, known in China as the "September 18 Incident," in Japan as the "Manchurian Incident" and in the West as the "Mukden Incident," began 14 years of Japanese aggression against China, one major step among many in Japan's early 20th century designs to take over the country.
Konoe began to argue that Japan's military aggression during the 1930s, starting with the Manchurian Incident in 1931, was triggered by elaborate conspiracies of the Japanese left.
The march was partly held to mark the 79th anniversary of the Japanese bombing of a railroad track near Shenyang, the start of the Manchurian Incident that led to Japan's invasion of northeastern China.
Japan's association with the League of Nations is usually limited to its disappointment over the veto of a racial equality clause as the League was forming in 1919 and its dramatic departure from the League in 1933 over the Manchurian Incident. Thomas W.
Before the Manchurian Incident of 1931, the local Chinese warlord government adopted different policies toward the Koreans in the two areas.
For example, the textbook has a glaring tendency to interpret history between the Manchurian Incident and the Pacific War in a way that is too favorable from Japan's standpoint.