Mandan

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Mandan

(măn`dăn, –dən), indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). The Mandan were a sedentary tribe of the Plains area and were culturally connected with their neighbors on the Missouri River, the ArikaraArikara
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Archaeological evidence shows that they occupied the banks of the upper Missouri River since at least the 14th cent.
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 and the HidatsaHidatsa
, Native North Americans, also known as the Minitari and the Gros Ventre. Their language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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. The Mandan had certain distinctive cultural traits, which included a myth of origin in which their ancestors climbed from beneath the earth on the roots of a grapevine. According to tradition, at one time the Mandan lived to the east, but their movements in historic times were westward up the Missouri River. By the mid-18th cent., they lived in nine villages near the mouth of the Heart River in S central North Dakota. After having suffered severely from smallpox and the attacks of the Assiniboin and the Sioux, the Mandan moved farther up the Missouri River to a point opposite the Arikara villages. Here the Mandan survivors merged into two villages on opposite sides of the Knife River. They were visited (1804) by Lewis and Clark, who said that they numbered some 1,250. In 1837, after an epidemic of smallpox and cholera, the Mandan were reduced to some 150, all dwelling in a single village. When the Hidatsa moved (1845) from the Knife River region N to the Fort Berthold trading post, the few Mandan joined them. A large reservation was set aside (1870) for the Mandan, the Hidatsa, and the Arikara in North Dakota (Fort Berthold Reservation). There were some 1,200 Mandan in the United States in 1990.

Bibliography

See G. Catlin, O-Kee-Pa, a Religious Ceremony, and Other Customs of the Mandans (1867, centennial ed. by J. C. Ewers, 1967), E. A. Fenn, Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan People (2014).


Mandan

(măn`dăn, –dən), city (1990 pop. 15,177), seat of Morton co., S N.Dak., on the Missouri River opposite Bismarck; inc. 1881. A railroad division point, it is the distribution center for a grain, livestock, and dairy region. The city has a large cattle market and food-processing plants. Manufactures include wood and metal products and tile. Lewis and Clark wintered there (1804–5) in the Mandan Native American villages. A state industrial school is in the city, and a U.S. agricultural experiment station is nearby.
References in periodicals archive ?
Because Mandan Indians are still known today as the white-haired Indians.
The expedition spent the next winter amicably with the Mandan Indians.
Historian Simon Young, who specialises in Celtic history, has uncovered evidence which suggests the Mandan Indians were descendents of Madog, the 12th Century Welsh prince who is said to have reached America in the 1170s.
In the works are resources on such topics as art history up to the 1900s, farming history to the current day, an Indian Village picture tour, and descriptions of Mandan Indians.
Louis on May 14, 1804, Lewis and Clark, given $2,500 by the government and approximately four dozen men, headed up the difficult Missouri River by keelboat until November, when they encountered friendly Mandan Indians.
The 1997 parable carries some marks of more recent times: the cheerful multiculturalism shown when the members of the expedition dance with the Mandan Indians (in Duncan's words, an example of ``the friendship of the different cultures''), the recognition that women twice saved the expedition and the celebration of the captains' achievement in getting the jump on permitting blacks, Indians and women to vote.
In Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians (1841), George Catlin surmised that the members of Madog's expedition were the ancestors of the Mandan Indians.