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system of trusteeships established by Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of NationsLeague of Nations,
former international organization, established by the peace treaties that ended World War I. Like its successor, the United Nations, its purpose was the promotion of international peace and security.
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 for the administration of former Turkish territories and of former German colonies. As finally adopted, the mandates system was principally the work of the South African statesman Gen. Jan Christiaan SmutsSmuts, Jan Christiaan
, 1870–1950, South African statesman and soldier, b. Cape Colony.

Of Boer (Afrikaner) stock but a British subject by birth, he was educated at Victoria College (at Stellenbosch) and at Cambridge, where he won highest honors in law.
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. It marked an important innovation in international law with respect to the treatment of dependent territories. A mandated territory differed from a protectorateprotectorate,
in international law, a relationship in which one state surrenders part of its sovereignty to another. The subordinate state is called a protectorate. The term covers a great variety of relations, but typically the protected state gives up all or part of its
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 in that obligations were assumed by the mandate power to the inhabitants of the territory and to the League, which supervised mandates; it differed from a sphere of influence in that the guardians had an acknowledged right to raise and expend revenues, to appoint officials, and to make and enforce laws. The mandate system was administered by the League of Nations through a Permanent Mandates Commission of 11 members.

The mandated territories were divided into three classes, according to their economic and political development and their location, and were then assigned to individual powers. Class A consisted of Iraq (British), Syria and Lebanon (French), and Palestine (British). The provisional independence of these former Turkish provinces was recognized, subject to administrative control until they could stand alone. By 1949 all former Class A mandates had reached full independence. Class B was composed of the former German African colonies, South West Africa excepted—Tanganyika and parts of Togoland and the Cameroons (British), Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian), and the greater part of Togoland and the Cameroons (French). The establishment of military or naval bases in these regions by the mandatories was forbidden; commercial equality with other nations and native rights were guaranteed. In Class C were placed South West Africa (South Africa), former German Samoa (New Zealand), New Guinea (Australia), Nauru (Australia), and former German islands in the Pacific, north of the equator (Japan). While fortification of these mandates was forbidden and native rights were guaranteed, these areas were to be administered by the mandatories as integral parts of their empires.

With the creation of the United NationsUnited Nations
(UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. It replaced the League of Nations. In 1945, when the UN was founded, there were 51 members; 193 nations are now members of the organization (see table entitled United Nations Members).
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, the mandates system was superseded by the trusteeship system (see trusteeship, territorialtrusteeship, territorial,
system of UN control for territories that were not self-governing. It replaced the mandates of the League of Nations. Provided for under chapters 12 and 13 of the Charter of the United Nations, the trusteeship system was intended to promote the welfare
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). All remaining mandated territories became trust territories except South West Africa (now Namibia), whose status was contested by South Africa and the United Nations until it became independent in 1990.


See Q. Wright, Mandates under the League of Nations (1930, repr. 1968).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Mander's plea had underlined that the immigrants must be treated as refugees.
Ashleigh, Billy, George and Jasmine with Jonathan Hall of Mander Hadley
"Debenhams is the project's first milestone and it will change the dynamics of retailing in Wolverhampton," said Jonathan Ratnage, investment manager for Benson Elliot, which owns the Mander Centre.
"We want to create a network of peace communities in every district," said Suroor Mander, one of the organisers.
Peter Cornforth, director of retail at Benson Elliot, said: "We are delighted to have completed this acquisition, and are now looking forward to working with Wolverhampton City Council, the local community and our retailers to progress the planned refurbishment of the Mander Centre."
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Mander's dedication is clear and especially as she combines this work with a job in an accountancy office in Rugby.
In his latest book, The Capitalism Papers, Mander details, without a lot of fluff, some irrefutable arguments against capitalism, which he says is based on the premise of limitless growth on a planet with ultimately limited resources.
By 2008 a 28 year-old Damien Mander had had his fill of the war in Iraq, and one day took the heavily-armoured transport dubbed the rhino bus on a final journey along what had come to be the most dangerous stretch of road in the world, Route Irish--the highway to Baghdad International Airport, and thence onward to home.
The Victorian-like land setting is filled with rigid rules and restrictive expectations, but people guided by them, including Mander and his formidable father, slowly open themselves to the sirens' gentle, positive, joyful persuasion.
What the German philosophers offered was, as Mander notes, "a potential way through the impasse between intuitionism and skepticism." Against the backdrop of poverty and political distraction, the adopted idealism provided a social philosophy as well as the impulse to establish clubs and societies devoted to reform.
Mander hopes to rectify this unfortunate situation, for what he holds to be two important reasons.