Mandingo

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Mandingo

 

(1) The self-designation (also, Malinke, Man-ding, Wangara, Mandinga, Mali) of a group of peoples living in West Africa—in southern Gambia, northern and northeastern Republic of Guinea, western Mali, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Senegal, and Portuguese Guinea (Bissau)—who speak the Malinke language. The group also includes the Koranko and Wasulunka in the Republic of Guinea, the Manyanka in Liberia, and several other groups.

(2) A name used primarily in French works to refer to a large group of closely related peoples: the Malinke proper, or Manding, Mandinga), the Bambara (Banmana), and the Dinla. All of them live along the upper course of the Senegal and Niger rivers; they constitute the main population of western Mali, northeastern Republic of Guinea, southern and eastern Senegal, and certain regions of the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Portuguese Guinea (Bissau). Total population, approximately 4.2 million (1970, estimate).

The Mandingo speak languages related to the northern group of Mande languages. Most of the Mandingo are Muslims; old animistic beliefs and ancestor worship are still practiced in some areas. The chief occupation is farming (millet, corn, rice, kidney beans); livestock raising (goats, sheep, donkeys, poultry) is poorly developed; the Diula engage in trade. The basic form of Mandingo rural village settlements is a group of mud huts surrounded by a mud wall. A kindred group, usually a large patriarchal family, lives in each village. Traditional social relations, such as secret societies, caste differences, and age-class systems, are still partially retained in many regions. However, all of these ancient institutions are gradually disappearing.

According to legend, the historical center of the formation of the Mandingo peoples was located along the upper reaches of the Niger River, where, in the eighth century, the political unification of the Mandingo was achieved with the founding of the Mali state.

REFERENCES

Sund’iatta: Mandingskii epos. Leningrad-Moscow, 1963. (Translated from French.)
Labouret, H. Les Manding et leur langue. Paris, 1934.
Labouret, H. Paysans d’Afrique occidentale. Paris [1941].

D. A. OL’DEROGGE


Mandingo

 

a group of languages that includes the Bambara, Malinke, and Diula dialects (Mande-tan group of the Mande languages). Malinke is spoken in Senegal, Sudan, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Gambia, and Guinea (1.1 million people); Bambara is spoken in Senegal, Sudan, Guinea, and Upper Volta; Diula is spoken in the Republic of the Ivory Coast and Upper Volta. There are approximately 4.2 million speakers of Mandingo languages (1970, estimate).

Vowels are distinguished according to degree of opening (degree of aperture of the speech passage), for example, bere “stick,” bεrε “stone.” Other phonetic features include the presence of long vowels (ba “big,” “mother”), nasalized vowels (bo “to go out,” b5 “room”), and the labialized consonant gb. Suffixes are used in word formation and for inflection. Concept alienability and inalienability categories occur.

REFERENCES

Delafosse, M. La Langue mandingue et ses dialectes, vol. 1. Paris, 1929.
Delaforge. Grammaire et méthode Bambara, 6th ed. Paris, 1947.

I. N. TOPOROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
A former village chief, Manding was attempting a comeback by challenging incumbent punong barangay Alemudin Usman in Barangay (Village) 23-C.
Phase 2 was intended as a measure of maintenance, or persistence of manding. All sessions were 5 min.
Following the baseline phase, a touch prompt was given to guide the participant to the sign for "eat." The mean for manding "eat" rose to 31.15%, with a range of 25.71% to 40.63%, along with the actual consumption of the food that he was given on making the sign.
Three antecedent stimulus dimensions (tasks, settings, and persons) and four dependent variables (problem behavior, independent manding, task completion, and social interactions) were evaluated prior to and following the completion of FCT with 4 young boys whose problem behavior was maintained, at least in part, by escape from demands.
Amid the fracas, Ebrahim, who just passed by the area, and Cabuntalan, a supporter of Manding's, were shot by unidentified suspects.
The card and microswitch were used as visual stimuli that signaled that reinforcement, in the form of an enriched break, was available for appropriate manding and also enabled the children to mand for reinforcement without vocalizing or manual signing.
(2007), found mixed results when training 5 participants to display discriminate manding using picture cards to obtain preferred items.
Responding policemen arrested the wounded Manding, and rushed him to a nearby hospital for treatment.
Establishing derived manding for specific amounts with three children: An attempt at synthesizing Skinner's Verbal Behavior with relational frame theory.
A pistol-wielding Manding reportedly fired at Supt.
When such a relation is established, one would expect to observe, under appropriate contextual conditions, emergent performances, such as emergent manding (see, also, Barnes-Holmes, Barnes-Holmes, & Cullinan, 2000; Horne & Lowe, 1996).
We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple manding topographies during functional communication training (FCT) to decrease problem behavior for three preschool-age children.