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(măn`ĭthō), fl. 300 B.C., Egyptian historian, a priest at Heliopolis, under Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II. His work, covering the history of Egypt from legendary times to 323 B.C., is written in Greek and is known to us only through the later works of Josephus, Sextus Julius Africanus, and Eusebius. Manetho's arrangement of 30 dynasties, in spite of limitations—some dynastic changes are not recorded; some dynasties continued through two or three of Manetho's—has proved to be a convenient device and is still in use.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



Born in the second half of the fourth century B.C.; died at the beginning of the third century B.C. Ancient Egyptian historian; head priest in Heliopolis; a native of the city of Sebennytos.

Manetho wrote the History of Egypt in Greek; it has survived only as excerpts quoted by Flavius Josephus and the church historians Africanus and Eusebius. The division of Egyptian history into 30 dynasties and three periods—the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom—was made by Manetho (and is accepted by modern scholarship, with certain refinements, to the present day). The Soviet academician V. V. Struve has proved that Manetho used reliable sources: most of the information he presents is accurate.


[Works]. With an English translation by W. G. Waddell. Loeb Classical Library, London, 1948.


Struve, V. V. “Manefon i ego vremia.” Zapiski kollegii vostokovedov. Vol. 3, issue 1, Leningrad, 1928. Vol. 4, Leningrad, 1930.
Struve, V. V. “Podlinnyi Manefonovskii spisok tsarei Egipta i khronologiia Novogo tsarstva.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, no. 4, 1946.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Manetho, Aegyptiaca), the removal of spurious pharaohs, the shortening of others' ascribed reigns, and the necessarily concomitant shortening of the Iron IA-IIB Levantine archaeological periods, does provide an alternative footing upon which a testable framework might be rebuilt, one where proposed new insights might be subject to rigorous testing, without resorting to faith or authority for solutions.
In a lightly revised version of his 2013 dissertation for a doctorate in the history of religion at Uppsala University, Billing analyzes the ritualization in the mortuary complex of Pepy I, a king who according to Manetho ruled reigned for 53 years during the early sixth dynasty (2300 BCE).
Josephus quotes Manetho in his work Contra Apion in order to discredit Manetho's version of the Exodus.
Manetho is said to have lived in the 3rd century AD, which should be BCE.
Drawing upon royal lists recorded in an epitome by the Hellenized Egyptian priest Manetho (third century BCE), Syncellus arranged rulers of the Nineteenth Dynasty, ending with a pharaoh whom Homer (Odyssey, IV, 126) called Polybus but according to Manetho's epitomator, Julius Africanus, was named "Thuoris." Who was "Thuoris"?
Like the High Priest Manetho of Sebennytus of the third century B.C - writing under the reign of King Ptolemy II Philadelphus his Aegyptiaca and other books in Greek to acquaint the Greek empire with the antiquity of Egypt and correct it from false notions that he saw were written by Herodotus and whose home city went through a similar lingual transformation to exist today as Sammannoud - I too feel a need to write this essay to acquaint my readers with some misconceptions about our name.
484-430 BCE; an outsider to Egyptian culture) or the Egyptian Manetho (ca.
The content was falsely attributed to Berosus, Fabius Pictor, Cato, Manetho and others.
and Manetho's pagan anti-Judaism campaign in Alexandria, Egypt, antisemitism has taken on a chameleon characteristic that it has retained throughout the ages.
Then he considers how Herodotus, Manetho, and other historians used the same or similar sources in their histories of Egypt.
During the early years of Ptolemaic rule, the priest Manetho sought to explain the various aspects of Egyptian culture to interested Greeks.