Manfred


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Manfred

(măn`frəd, Ger. män`frāt), c.1232–1266, king of Sicily (1258–66), the last HohenstaufenHohenstaufen
, German princely family, whose name is derived from the castle of Staufen built in 1077 by a Swabian count, Frederick. In 1079, Frederick married Agnes, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and was created duke of Swabia.
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 on that throne. An illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Manfred was regent in Sicily for his brother Conrad IVConrad IV,
1228–54, German king (1237–54), king of Sicily and of Jerusalem (1250–54), son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. He was elected (1237) king of the Romans at his father's instigation after Frederick had deposed Conrad's older brother Henry in
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. Conrad died in 1254, and Manfred seized the regency for Conrad's young son, ConradinConradin
, 1252–68, duke of Swabia, titular king of Jerusalem and Sicily, the last legitimate Hohenstaufen, son of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad IV. While Conradin was still a child in Germany, his uncle Manfred made himself (1258) king of Sicily.
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. However, Pope Innocent IVInnocent IV,
d. 1254, pope (1243–54), a Genoese named Sinibaldo Fieschi, a distinguished jurist who studied and later taught law at the Univ. of Bologna; successor of Celestine IV. He was of a noble family.
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 and his successors, Alexander IV and Urban IVUrban IV,
d. 1264, pope (1261–64), a Frenchman (b. Troyes) named Jacques Pantaléon; successor of Alexander IV. In the pontifical service he was sent on missions into N Germany; then he was made bishop of Verdun (1253) and Latin patriarch of Jerusalem (1255).
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, were determined to stamp out the Hohenstaufen. Papal forces invaded Sicily, and Manfred was forced to restore (1254) the kingdom to the papacy, retaining only the duchy of Taranto in fief from the pope. Soon Manfred rebelled, reconquered S Italy and Sicily, assumed leadership of the antipapal forces throughout Italy, and had himself crowned (1258) at Palermo. Urban IV reacted by investing Charles of Anjou with Sicily as Charles ICharles I
(Charles of Anjou), 1227–85, king of Naples and Sicily (1266–85), count of Anjou and Provence, youngest brother of King Louis IX of France. He took part in Louis's crusades to Egypt (1248) and Tunisia (1270).
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. Invading Italy, Charles defeated Manfred at Benevento (1266). Manfred died in the battle, and Conradin was later captured and executed. After the Sicilian VespersSicilian Vespers,
in Italian history, name given the rebellion staged by the Sicilians against the Angevin French domination of Sicily; the rebellion broke out at Palermo at the start of Vespers on Easter Monday, Mar. 30, 1282.
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 (1282), Manfred's son-in-law, Peter III of Aragón, was chosen king of Sicily and began a new dynasty.

Manfred

magician, living alone in an Alpine castle, broods on his alienation from mankind and on his destruction of the woman he loved. [Br. Poetry: Byron “Manfred”]
See: Remorse
References in classic literature ?
I was a poet and a grand gentleman, I fell in love; I came in for countless millions and immediately devoted them to humanity, and at the same time I confessed before all the people my shameful deeds, which, of course, were not merely shameful, but had in them much that was "sublime and beautiful" something in the Manfred style.
The celebrated Cucumetto, pursued in the Abruzzo, driven out of the kingdom of Naples, where he had carried on a regular war, had crossed the Garigliano, like Manfred, and had taken refuge on the banks of the Amasine between Sonnino and Juperno.
Led by Kurt Schoffer and Manfred Moullion DNS will serve as our platform for expanding our successful enterprise computing solutions business throughout Europe.
LONDON, April 25 /PRNewswire/ -- What Manfred Davidmann has done with his works on the Pentateuch and the Bible, on religion and church-state relations, is to expose and correct the misinterpretations and mistranslations of the past.
Bluegate CEO Manfred Sternberg, will host the call.
Report by Manfred Davidmann Explores What Jesus Actually Taught
17 /PRNewswire/ -- Participation, meaning by this "participation in decision-making," was first coined, and defined, by Manfred Davidmann when he published his analysis and recommendations about the style of management, in 1981.
PHILADELPHIA -- Aphton Corporation (NASDAQ:APHT) today announced the appointment of Manfred Ruediger, Ph.
On behalf of the Board of Directors, "MANFRED PESCHKE" Manfred Peschke, Chairman VANNESSA VENTURES LTD.
NYSE:A) today announced that its 2005 Manfred Donike Award for scientific excellence in doping control has been awarded to Tiia Kuuranne, researcher at the Doping Control Laboratory of United Laboratories Ltd.
OB), Los Angeles, CA) whose focus is on liver failure and chronic kidney/liver dialysis; Manfred Windisch (PhD, CEO, JSW Research, Inc.
IDEX Corporation , the world's leading provider of positive displacement pumps, dispensing equipment for color formulation and other highly engineered products including the Hurst Jaws of Life, today announced that it has acquired German-based Manfred Vetter GmbH, a manufacturer of rescue and environmental protection equipment.