bipolar disorder

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Related to Manic-depression: rapid cycling, Unipolar disorder, Bipolar depression

bipolar disorder,

formerly

manic-depressive disorder

or

manic-depression,

severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
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 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
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 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
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 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
(psychology)
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Local university teaching hospitals or medical centers can provide the names of doctors who are up to date in the diagnosis and treatment of depression or manic-depression. Advocacy groups, including the National Depression Management Association and the National Mental Health Association, often provide local referrals.
Manic-depression affects one out of every 100 people, and it runs in families.
The process of finding the specific genes responsible for manic-depression out of the 100,000 or so human genes is like tracking down an enemy spy with a secret radio transmitter by gradually homing in on the source of the radio waves.
The mood-gene hunter first finds a family or isolated population that is prone to manic-depression, then analyzes the DNA from this population to see if the people who have the disorder also have certain genetic markers (the few thousand genes or segments of DNA whose locations are known).
Manic-depression is a mystery disease; it has haunted the human race since antiquity.
Learning of a doctor at UCLA who specialized in manic-depression and attention deficit disorder, Steel contacted him about her son.
Filled with excerpts from Nick's diaries, His Bright Light (Delacorte Press) is Danielle Steel's legacy and tribute to her son, as well as a haunting depiction of manic-depression.
Manic-depression, also currently known as bipolar disorder, has baffled medical practitioners for thousands of years.
Manic-depression is a lethal disease that is very treatable.
One of my hopes in writing the book was that it would make it easier for people to talk about manic-depression. And one of the things that has been very nice is that - at least in some situations - I feel that there has been more public discussion about manic-depressive illness than there was before.
Mogens Schou, the famous Danish researcher who developed lithium treatment, once compared their pedigrees on the backs of table napkins, filling in squares and circles to indicate family members with manic-depression and other mood disorders.

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