Manila


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Manila

(mənĭl`ə), city (1990 pop. 1,601,234), capital of the Philippines, SW Luzon, on Manila Bay. Manila is the center of the country's largest metropolitan area, its chief port, and the focus of all governmental, commercial, industrial, and cultural activities. In addition to its extensive and superb port facilities, Manila has a major international airport and is the terminus of the island's railroads and highways. It is the manufacturing center of the Philippines, with large metal fabrication, automobile assembly, and textile and garment industries. It also has food- and hemp-processing plants, cigarette factories, and establishments making toilet articles, pharmaceuticals, and other chemical products.

The navigable Pasig River flows through the city, dividing it into two sections, with Intramuros (the old Spanish walled city) and Ermita (the site of most government buildings and tourist hotels) on the south bank, and the "newer" section (which includes the commercial district, many congested slum areas, and the Chinese quarter in Binondo) on the northern bank. Malacañang Palace, the presidential mansion, is on the Pasig.

Manila is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Asia. It has many daily newspapers and periodicals, radio and television stations, a symphony orchestra, and more than 20 universities and colleges. These include the Univ. of Santo Tomás (1611), which during World War II served as an internment camp for thousands of American, British, and Dutch civilian prisoners; the Ateneo de Manila (1859); the Univ. of Manila; the Univ. of the East; and Manila Central Univ. The oval-shaped Luneta, the country's national park on Manila Bay, contains a monument to José Rizal, who was executed by a Spanish firing squad there.

History

A fortified walled colony was established on the Pasig in 1571 by López de Legazpi and developed mainly by Spanish missionaries. Except for two years (1762–64) when the city was in British hands, it remained under Spanish control until the Spanish-American War (1898), when it was seized by U.S. forces three months after the battle of Manila Bay. Filipino uprisings occurred for several years, and not until 1901 was a civil government definitely established. In World War II the city was occupied by the Japanese (Jan. 2, 1942). Its recovery (Feb., 1945) involved fierce house-to-house fighting, which reduced the old walled city to rubble, destroying many fine examples of 17th-century Spanish architecture. Only the Church of San Agustin (1606) survived. Reconstruction of the Manila Cathedral began in 1958. Quezon CityQuezon City,
city (1990 pop. 1,669,776), former capital of the Republic of the Philippines, central Luzon, a part of the Manila metropolitan area. A suburb of Manila, taken separately it would be the most populous city in the Philippines.
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 replaced the city as the national capital in 1948, but Manila was restored as the capital in 1976. In 1968, Manila was shaken by a severe earthquake, which killed over 300 people and caused extensive property damage. In 1972 the city was damaged by floodwaters resulting from more than three weeks of torrential rains.

Manila

 

the largest city of the Philippines; the economic, political, and cultural center of the country, as well as the de facto capital. It is located on Luzon Island, at the point where the Pasig River empties into Manila Bay of the South China Sea. The climate is subequatorial, with frequent typhoons occurring in August and September. The Manila area has been subject to earthquakes.

Manila proper (area, 38.3 sq km), with a population of 1.3 million (1970 census), is the core of the Greater Manila conurbation. The Greater Manila conurbation (area, 832 sq km; population, 4.3 million [1972]) includes rural communities, suburbs, and the satellite cities of Quezon City (the nation’s official capital), Caloocan, Mandaluyong, Malabon, Makati, San Juan del Monte, Paranaque, Pasay, and Navotas (a fishing port).

The administration of Manila is regulated by a special law, which serves as the charter of the city. The elective city council is headed by a mayor, who is elected for a four-year term.

The city developed from a fortress built by Spanish conquistadores on the site of the Tagalog settlements of Maynila and Tondo, which they seized in 1571. In 1574 the fortress city of Manila became the administrative center of the Spanish colony; in 1898 it was occupied by the United States. From 1942 through February 1945 it was in the hands of Japan. In 1946 it became the capital of the Republic of the Philippines. In 1948 the official capital was transferred to Quezon City. Manila is the center of the workers’ and trade union movement of the Philippines.

Two-thirds of all industrial enterprises and one-half of all persons employed in the nation’s industry are concentrated in Greater Manila. Manila proper contains garment, footwear, printing, food, and wood-products industries (about 65 percent of the industrial workers of the city). There are also textile, chemical, and metalworking enterprises. Industrial areas are concentrated mainly along the Pasig River, the railroad, and highways. Manila is an international trade center and transportation junction. It has a port (freight turnover of more than 4 million tons a year), which handles a significant part of the country’s foreign trade (the South Harbor handles nine-tenths of the imports and one-third of the exports of the Philippines; the North Harbor handles cabotage). The airport is located near the city of Pasay.

The historical center of Manila—the Intramuros (territory of the former Spanish fortress), which retained an irregular layout—had numerous monuments of Spanish colonial architecture of the 16th to 18th centuries, the majority of which were destroyed as a result of the bombings of 1941-44 (except for the Church of San Agustin, 1599-1614, and certain others). The modern architectural appearance of Manila is extremely diverse and contradictory. Old Spanish private homes of the 18th and 19th centuries in the Quiapo district, fashionable villas and huge parks in the Ermita, Maate, and San Miguel districts, where the presidential palace of Malacañang (1863) and other government buildings are located, and the functionalist buildings of the new business center of Makati contrast with the slums of the industrial and port district of Tondo.

Manila’s educational and cultural institutions include the University of Manila, the Catholic University of Santo Tomas, the Far Eastern University, the Philippine Women’s University, the National Library, the National Museum, and the Museum of Santo Tomas, which has ethnological and philological collections and a picture gallery.

Manila

the chief port of the Philippines, on S Luzon on Manila Bay: capital of the republic until 1948 and from 1976; seat of the Far Eastern University and the University of Santo Tomas (1611). Pop.: 10 677 000 (2005 est.)
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