The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Mana), an ancient Eastern state of the first half of the first millennium B.C.; the first stable state formation on the territory of Azerbaijan. The nucleus of the state and its capital, Izirtu (Zirta), were located in the basin of the Dzhagatu River. In the beginning of the first millennium B.C. there existed near Lake Urmia a number of small state-type amalgamations with their centers in fortress cities. (One such fortress city, dating to the tenth and ninth centuries B.C., has been excavated on Khasanlu hill.) In the ninth century, when Assyria and, later, Urartu were expanding, Mannai was becoming stronger. (It is first mentioned in 843 B.C.) In the eighth century Mannai had already become a large state, uniting a number of neighboring regions. Its population belonged to various ethnic groups: both to the old local, related Hurrians, Lullubi, Guti, and Kassites and to Iranian groups which spread out in that area from the beginning of the first millennium B.C. Deep social contradictions were evident in Mannai’s society; the tribal and service aristocracy and the rulers of the provinces and tribes played an important role.

The power of the kings of Mannai was strengthened after the victory in 715-714 B.C. of Assyria, their ally, over Urartu. In the early seventh century, Mannai successfully struggled with Assyria but was defeated in 660-659. After this, a popular uprising occurred in Mannai during which King Akhsheri was killed. Subsequently, Mannai was an ally of Assyria until their forces were defeated in 616 in the war with the Neo-Babylonian empire and Media. In the seventh century the Scythians, who had settled in Southwest Asia, played a significant role in the history of Mannai. Between 615-610 and 590, Mannai was subjugated by Media and made part of its empire. The materials in the Saqqez treasure (burials of the late seventh century B.C. on the hill of Ziwiye, 42 km east of the city of Saqqez), in particular, testify to the high level of handicraft production and art attained by Mannai.


Melikishvili, G. A. “Nekotorye voprosy istorii Maneiskogo tsarstva.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1949, no. 1.
D’iakonov, I. M. Istoriia Midiiot drevneishikh vremen do kontsa IV veka do n.e. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Aliev, I. Istoriia Midii. Baku, 1960.
Kashkai, S. M. “Novye dannye ob obshchestve i kul’ture Manny.” Izvestiia AN Azerb. SSR: Ser. istorii, filosofii i prava, 1968, no. 3.
Grantovskii, E. A. Ranniaia istoriia iranskikh piemen Perednei Azii. Moscow, 1970.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mannai said that SDC's annual gala dinner aimed at bringing together 'the best of different worlds' and has a 'hugely positive impact on the community'.
Talking to Qatar Tribune on Thursday, Head of Forecast and Analysis section Abdulla Mohammed al Mannai said, "The warning against high seas continues.
MOUSHUMI DAS CHAUDHURY DOHA THE shareholders of Mannai Corporation have approved the capital increase of the company by 20 percent for partly funding the 35 percent Axiom acquisition.
During the period, access from Al Mannai Roundabout to Al Khaleej Street will be also banned.
Tribune News Network Doha THE Public Works Authority 'Ashghal' has announced partial closure of the northbound lanes of Al Khaleej Street, leading from WadiMushireb Intersection (known as Al Jaidah Bridge R/A) towards Al Khaleej Intersection (known as Al Mannai R/A) from August 14 (Wednesday).
Bahrain-based Golden Gate Real Estate Company has announced the appointment of real estate expert, Eman Al Mannai, as its new Vice President of Sales and Marketing.
21 (BNA): National Communication Centre (NCC)'s CEO Ahmed Mohammed Al Mannai stressed the importance of government communication in the region and the enhancement of its role as an effective and influential tool in serving community issues.
Ahmed Mohammed al Mannai, director general of Bahrain News Agency (BNA) visited media institutions in the sultanate.
Qatar's exclusive GMC dealer, Mannai Trading, wheeled in two new vehicles as part of backing the Ride of Champions Festival.