ENPNewswire-August 27, 2019--UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI: First direct evidence for a mantle plume
origin of Jurassic flood basalts in southern Africa
Known as a "mantle plume
," this narrow conduit sends hot rock to the surface.
They were using computer simulations to see how the geology of the western United States may have evolved over the last 20 million years and found "little support for the traditional mantle plume
hypothesis," according to the (https://news.illinois.edu/view/6367/590721) University of Illinois .
A volcano forms on a tectonic plate above a mantle plume
. As the plate moves, the plume gives birth to a series of volcanoes.
can apparently trigger continental breakups, softening the tectonic plates from below until they fragment - this is how the lost continent of Eastern Gondwana ended about 170 million years ago, prior research suggests.
The continental margins of the two antipodal large low shearvelocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the Pacific are favourable locations for the episodic initiation of large thermal upwelling (mantle plume
Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes
. These so-called "hot spots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core-mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.
'It also implies that mantle plumes
indeed bring material from the deep mantle to the surface and are a crucial means of heat and material transport to the surface.'
Venus hosts at least nine volcanic hot spots, or mantle plumes
, similar to the plumes thought to power the Hawaiian island chain, Smrekar and colleagues suggested in Science last year.
Other topics of the 21 papers include the formation of Martian river valleys by impacts, oceanic island basalts and mantle plumes
, frictional melting processes in planetary materials, spatial patterns in isotopic biogeochemistry, and glacial earthquakes in Greenland and Antarctica.
The latter may have originated as dispersed parts of ancient mantle plumes
similar to a modern plume responsible for the formation of the intraplate Bowie Seamount.