maquiladoras

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maquiladoras

(mäkē'lädō`räs), Mexican assembly plants that manufacture finished goods for export to the United States. The maquiladoras are generally owned by non-Mexican corporations. They take advantage of plentiful lower-cost Mexican labor, advantageous tariff regulations (lessened somewhat as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement), and close proximity to U.S. markets to produce such items as home appliances and automobiles. Starting on a small scale in the mid-1960s, the maquiladoras were initially almost entirely located in the N border region of Mexico. They grew dramatically after Mexico substantially revised its economic regulations concerning foreign investment in the early 1980s. From 1983 to 1990, the maquiladora industry grew at approximately 20% annually, and it grew even more sharply with the U.S. economic boom in the late 1990s; it is one of Mexico's primary sources of foreign exchange. The maquiladoras stimulated rapid population migration to the border region, particularly at its eastern and western extremities (Matamoros/Brownsville and Tijuana/San Diego). After 2000 the number of plants and workers they employed declined; in 2002 some 3,600 plants employed approximately 960,000 workers. Beginning in the late 1990s an increasing number of the plants were located in the Mexican heartland, and many plants now use automation extensively.
References in periodicals archive ?
In statements to the state news agency Informacion Paraguay (IP), Ernesto Paredes, the secretary of the Consejo Nacional de las Industrias Maquiladoras (National Council of Maquiladora Industries), specified that exports had increased 10% last year due in large part to textiles, plastic products, and light auto parts (cable kits produced by five Brazilian firms for their respective parent companies, shock absorbers, and brake pads, among other items).
Esta situacion contrasta con el empleo generado por las empresas con sede en Holanda, Taiwan, Suecia y Alemania, cuyo promedio es mayor a la media de la industria maquiladora.
In the last two decades, the evident and ostensibly uncontrollable levels of unpunished crime in the area (e.g., the Juarez femicides which Chicana scholar, Alicia Gaspar de Alba, openly names the "Maquiladora Murders" [2003, 1], or the violence provoked by the narcotrafico and its protagonists) have transformed this space into a violent, militarized zone, as highlighted in the following figures:
The characterization of the maquiladora industry is closely linked to the development of the City of Tijuana, as well as to the economic impact on the development of the State of Baja California, industrial escalation, and the new generations of companies with their levels of sophistication within the last thirty years.
El mundo de vida en la maquiladora es producto de estratificaciones culturales y sociales de los predecesores y que la actual generacion de trabajadoras reproduce; es decir, es un mundo de la maquila que heredaron y el cual con sus acciones contribuyeron a reproducir.
La maquiladora tiene un impacto mucho mas visible a nivel regional, destacando las entidades de la frontera norte, pero tambien en Jalisco, Guanajuato, Mexico, Puebla, Distrito Federal y Yucatan.
Wollschlager was also quick to praise INDEX (the Export Industry Association) and the Consejo Nacional de Industrias Maquiladoras de Exportacion (CNIME).
En este caso fue el sector de la industria maquiladora del sector electronico, por representar la base del crecimiento economico de la ciudad de Tijuana, Baja California.
En el se estudian la gestion y operacion de las plantas maquiladoras de Hermosillo, sonora (Mexico) para determinar un modelo teorico de costos medioambientales para la industria maquiladora.
Nonetheless, critics of export-led development still refer to the maquiladora industry as an industry with low wages, disarticulation of production, and few backward and forward linkages.
Table 2 shows average annual percent changes of relevant variables, which provide another view of the dynamism in maquiladora activity in the period.
The federal government pays one third of salaries, the maquiladora another third, and the employee loses the final third through days not worked.