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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in Portugal:

Maria I. Born Dec. 17, 1734, in Lisbon; died Mar. 20, 1816, in Rio de Janeiro. In 1777, she became queen of Portugal, and in the same year, influenced by the aristocracy and clergy, she dismissed Pombal and abolished his reforms. In 1788 Maria I fell victim to a nervous disorder, and her son Juan was made ruler of the country. After the French occupation of Portugal in 1808, Maria I and other members of the royal family emigrated to Brazil.

Maria II (Maria da Gloria). Born Apr. 4, 1819, in Rio de Janeiro; died Nov. 15, 1853, in Lisbon. Queen of Portugal in 1826-28 and again from 1834. She was the daughter of the emperor of Brazil, Pedro I, who abdicated the Portuguese throne in her favor. During the minority of Maria II, Pedro’s brother, Miguel, was regent. In 1828 he seized the throne and in 1829 forced Maria II to return to Brazil. The supporters of Maria II and Pedro launched a civil war and drove Miguel from the country; in 1834, Maria was reinstated on the throne.

The reign of Maria II was marked by a struggle (that met with varying success) between the radicals, who supported the constitution of 1822, and the Chartists, who supported the constitutional charter of 1826. Her reign was also marked by popular movements (the war of Maria da Fonte).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.