Marchand, Jean Baptiste

Marchand, Jean Baptiste

(zhäN bätēst` märshäN`), 1863–1934, French explorer and general. Sent to Africa (1897) to establish French control of the headwaters of the White Nile, Marchand led a heroic trek through uncharted terrain. In 1898 he established a post at Fashoda (now Kodok) and resisted dervish attacks. When Lord Kitchener arrived with a large British force, France and England stood at the brink of war; the Fashoda IncidentFashoda Incident
, 1898, diplomatic dispute between France and Great Britain. Toward the end of the 19th cent., while Britain was seeking to establish a continuous strip of territory from Cape Town to Cairo, France desired to establish an overland route from the Red Sea to the
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 ended with Marchand's withdrawal. Marchand fought in China in the Boxer Uprising (1900) and held a command in France in World War I.
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