Marcion

Marcion

(mär`shən, mär`sēən), c.85–c.160, early Christian bishop, founder of the Marcionites, one of the first great Christian heresies to rival Catholic Christianity. He was born in Sinope. He taught in Asia Minor, then went (c.135) to Rome, where he perfected his theory. In 144 he was excommunicated from the church. He then formed a church of his own, which became widespread and powerful. Marcion taught that there were two gods, proclaiming that the stern, lawgiving, creator God of the Old Testament, and the good, merciful God of the New Testament were different. He considered the creator god the inferior of the two. Marcion also rejected the real incarnation of Christ, claiming that he was a manifestation of the Father. Though generally seen as one of the most important leaders of the somewhat loosely defined movement known as Gnosticism, he did not share some of the main premises of other Gnostic sects. He believed in salvation by faith rather than by gnosis; he rejected the Gnostic emanation theory; and he sought truth in his own truncated version of the New Testament, which included only 10 of the so-called Pauline Epistles and an edited version of St. Luke. He completely rejected the Old Testament. He explained in his Antitheses that since Jewish law was often opposed to St. Paul, all passages in the Bible that suggested the Jewish foundation of Christianity should be suppressed, even including such statements by St. Paul (see antinomianismantinomianism
[Gr.,=against the law], the belief that Christians are not bound by the moral law, particularly that of the Old Testament. The idea was strong among the Gnostics, especially Marcion.
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). Marcionism emphasized asceticism and influenced the developments of ManichaeismManichaeism
or Manichaeanism
, religion founded by Mani (c.216–c.276). Mani's Life

Mani (called Manes by the Greeks and Romans) was born near Baghdad, probably of Persian parents; his father may have been a member of the Mandaeans.
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, by which it was later absorbed. Its effect on orthodox Christianity was to cause a canonical New Testament to be assembled and promulgated and the fulfillment of the Old Law in the New Law to be clearly enounced.
References in periodicals archive ?
After turning first to what Marcion of Smyrna had to say on the subject in his de simplicibus effectibus, he notes that Salpe was of the opinion that it could even cure numbness (or paralysis) if applied in the right places (28.38).
Markus Vinzent, Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels, Leuven, Paris, Walpole, MA: Peeters, 2014, 353 pp., 16 x 24, ISBN 978-90-429-3027-8.
Much earlier, in arguing against Marcion that the incarnation of Jesus was not a mere appearance and that the body of Christ was truly flesh, Tertullian likewise sought to make clear the sacramental (rather than physical) realism of the eucharistic bread become Christ's body: "[Jesus] took bread and, having distributed it to his disciples, made it into his body, saying 'This is my body,' that is, a figure of his body.
Marcion, viewing the teachings of Christ as incompatible with Judaism, proposed that the Christians reject the Jewish Scriptures (what was becoming the Christian Old Testament).
(79.) John Miller, "In the Footsteps of Marcion: Notes Toward An Understanding of John Yoder's Theology," CGR 16, no.
Tertullian wrote against Marcion: "If God is not One then there is no God" (Adv.
Still, as early as the second century a fellow named Marcion (c.
Irenaeus also rejected the teachings of Marcion for whom there was not one God, but two, a wrathful god of the Old Testament and a gracious god of the New.
For Scheck, Origen's interpretation of Romans, especially the significant passages in chapters 1, 3, and 5, is influenced by his concern to refute the Valentinians on the one hand and Marcion on the other.
Marcion, in 140, published the first recorded list and it included only the Gospel of Luke and 10 of Paul's letters.
She isolates three distinct geographic areas for this sort of investigation: Galatia (based solely on Paul's letter to the Galations), Syria (based on the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache, and the Pseudo-Clementine literature), and Asia Minor (based on Revelation, Ignatius, Justin Martyr, Marcion, and Melito).
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch (late 2nd cent.) is praised by Eusebius (4.24) as an "admirable" refuter of Marcion and other heretics, though these writings are lost, as are the catechetical texts and biblical commentaries mentioned by Jerome.