Marconi, Guglielmo, Marchese

Marconi, Guglielmo, Marchese

(go͞olyĕl`mō märkā`zā märkô`nē), 1874–1937, Italian physicist, celebrated for his development of wireless telegraphy (see radioradio,
transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range. The term is commonly applied also to the equipment used, especially to the radio receiver.
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). In the field of electromagnetic waves he correlated and improved inventions of H. R. HertzHertz, Heinrich Rudolf
, 1857–94, German physicist. He confirmed J. C. Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and in the course of experiments (1886–89) produced and studied electromagnetic waves (known also as hertzian waves, or radio waves).
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, Édouard Branly, and other scientists and invented a practical antenna. Experimenting with homemade apparatus, in 1895 he sent long-wave signals over a distance of more than a mile. He patented his system in England (1896) and organized a wireless telegraph company (1897) to develop its commercial applications. In 1899 he transmitted signals across the English Channel and in 1901 received in St. John's, N.L., the first transatlantic wireless signals, sent from his station at Poldhu, Cornwall. After World War I he concentrated on short waves, and c.1930 turned his attention to microwaves. He received, jointly with K. F. BraunBraun, Karl Ferdinand
, 1850–1918, German physicist. Braun taught at the Univ. of Marburg, Strasbourg Univ., Karlsruhe's Technische Hochschule, and the Univ. of Tübingen before being named director of Physics institute at Strasbourg in 1895.
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, the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics for work in wireless telegraphy.

Bibliography

See biographies by his daughter, D. P. Marconi (1962), D. Gunston (1965), W. P. Jolly (1972), and M. Raboy (2016).

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