Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin

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Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin

Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin (fārdēnändˈ ĕdˈrälēnˌ märˈkōs), 1917–89, Philippine political leader. A lawyer and aide to Manuel Roxas (1946–47), he was elected to congress in 1949, serving in the House of Representatives (1949–59) and Senate (1959–65). Formerly a Liberal, he broke with the party in 1965 and won the presidential election the same year as a nominee of the Nationalist party, defeating (1965) Diosdado Macapagal. As president, Marcos maintained close ties with the United States. He launched (Aug., 1969) major military campaigns against Communist insurgents (see Hukbalahap) and in Mindanao against Moro rebels (Muslims). He was reelected in 1969, and his second term was marked by increasing civil strife. In 1972, following a series of bombings in Manila, Marcos warned of imminent Communist takeover and declared martial law. In 1973, he assumed virtual dictatorial control with a new constitution. His regime's increasing isolation, fed by widespread corruption and the extravagance of his wife, Imelda, culminated with the assassination of Benigno Aquino (1983) on his return to the country. The opposition united behind Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, who ran against Marcos in the 1986 election. Marcos was declared the winner but was widely suspected of electoral fraud. Protests drove Marcos into exile, and Aquino became president. After substantial evidence of Marcos's corruption emerged, he and his wife, Imelda Remedios Visitación Romuáldez Marcos, 1929–, who had served as governor of Manila and minister of human settlements in his government, were indicted for embezzlement in the United States. Marcos died in Hawaii. After her husband's death Imelda Marcos was found innocent (1990) of embezzlement by a U.S. court. She was convicted of graft in a trial in the Philippines in 1993 but that was overturned on appeal in 1998. Other trials ended in acquittals or overturned guilty verdicts, but in 2018 she again was convicted of several counts of graft. In 2003 the government was awarded $650 million from frozen banks accounts in Switzerland that had belonged to Ferdinand Marcos, and the Philippines has since recovered several billion dollars in all. Imelda Marcos also has served in the Philippine legislature (1978–86, 1995–98, 2010–19). Ferdinand Marcos's body was brought to the Philippines in 1993; he was buried in Manila's Cemetery of Heroes in 2016.


See R. P. Guzman and M. A. Reforma, Government and Politics in the Philippines (1988); R. L. Youngblood, Marcos against the Church (1990).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin


Born Sept. 11, 1917, in Sarrat, near the city of Laoag, Luzon Island. Philippine statesman and political figure; lawyer.

In World War II (1939-45), Marcos fought against the Japanese occupation forces. In November 1965 he was elected president of the Philippine Republic on the ticket of the Nationalista Party, which expressed the interests of the national bourgeoisie; he was elected for a second term in November 1969. In December 1972 he introduced a state of emergency. The Marcos government enacted several measures that decreased the dependence of Philippine foreign policy on the USA and several bourgeois democratic reforms aimed at weakening the position of the landholding oligarchy and strengthening the position of the national bourgeoisie. In 1973, Marcos disbanded the parliament and ratified a new constitution, but the reconvening of a parliament was postponed, which led to the concentration of all the power in the hands of the president. [15-1136-1; updated]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Former Senator Bongbong Marcos, Imelda's son, has apologized for the incident, vowing to help the hospitalized guests.
Kabataan representative Sarah Elago said the decision of the anti-graft Sandiganbayan was "an insult to the Martial Law victims, their families, and Filipinos who have long been deprived of justice since the Marcos regime." Then-President Ferdinand Marcos, Imelda's husband, declared military rule in 1972.
Marcos, Imelda who was a friend of the late Edith N.
Khashoggi was arrested in Switzerland and extradited to New York to be indicted together with Marcos, Imelda and others under the antiracketeering law.
Marcos, Imelda, and their myrmidons bragged, and continue to brag, that they built kilometers of roads, built edifices that impressed all observers, and electrified remote barrios.
He said Marcos, Imelda, their children and Ver were moved to the 13AF Distinguished Visitor Quarters.