Marcus Garvey

(redirected from Marcus Mosiah Garvey)
Marcus Garvey
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr.
Birthday
BirthplaceSt. Ann's Bay, Jamaica
Died
Occupation
Publisher, journalist
Known for Activism, Black nationalism, Pan-Africanism

Garvey, Marcus,

1887–1940, American proponent of black nationalism, b. Jamaica. At the age of 14, Garvey went to work as a printer's apprentice. After leading (1907) an unsuccessful printers' strike in Jamaica, he edited several newspapers in Costa Rica and Panama. During a period in London he took law classes and became interested in African history and black nationalism. His concern for the problems of blacks led him to found (1914) the Universal Negro Improvement Association and in 1916 he moved to New York City and opened a branch in Harlem. The UNIA was an organization designed "to promote the spirit of race pride." Broadly, its goals were to foster worldwide unity among all blacks and to establish the greatness of the African heritage. The organization quickly spread in black communities throughout the United States, the Caribbean, and Central America, and soon had thousands of members.

Garvey addressed himself to the lowest classes of blacks and rejected any notion of integration. Convinced that blacks could not secure their rights in countries where they were a minority race, he urged a "back to Africa" movement. In Africa, he said, an autonomous black state could be established, possessing its own culture and civilization, free from the domination of whites. Garvey was the most influential black leader of the early 1920s. His brilliant oratory and his newspaper, Negro World, brought him millions of followers. His importance declined, however, when his misuse of funds intended to establish a steamship company that would serve members of the African diaspora, the Black Star Line, resulted in a mail fraud conviction. He entered jail in 1925 and was deported to Jamaica two years later. From this time on his influence decreased, and he died in relative obscurity.

Bibliography

See Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, compiled by A. J. Garvey (2d ed. 1967, repr. 1986); biographies by E. D. Cronon (1955, repr. 1969) and C. Grant (2008); studies by A. J. Garvey (1963), T. Vincent (1971), E. C. Fax (1972), E. D. Cronon, ed. (1973), J. H. Clarke, ed. (1974), and J. Stein (1985).

Garvey, Marcus (Moziah)

(1887–1940) social activist; born in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Largely self-educated, he worked as a printer in Jamaica, edited several short-lived papers in Costa Rica and Panama, then founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica (1914). In 1916 he moved to New York City, where he established UNIA headquarters and started up the Negro World, a popular weekly newspaper that con- veyed his message of black pride. Launching several other African-American capitalist ventures, he presided over an international convention of black people in New York (1920), where he called for freedom from white domination in Africa. His later life, however, was anticlimatic. In 1923 he was convicted of mail fraud when selling stock in his failed Black Star steamship line, which was launched for maritime trade between black nations; he was sentenced (1923) to a five-year prison term. Other ventures also failed, including an attempt to foster black colonization to Liberia. After his release from prison (1927) he was deported to Jamaica; he moved to London in 1934 and never regained prominence. However, in stirring African-Americans with his message of pride in ancestry and prospects of self-sufficiency, he prefigured a later generation of African-American leaders such as Malcolm X.
References in periodicals archive ?
It was published by members of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) during their first annual international convention chaired by UNIA President General Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
THE son of Jamaican national icon Marcus Mosiah Garvey paid a visit to the city to talk to young people.
You may agree with me that the achievements of our people seem to be a response to the imperative of our first National Hero, the Right Excellent Marcus Mosiah Garvey, who once urged black people with the words up you mighty race, you can accomplish what you will ," he stated.
It must be stressed that Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887-1940) was the founder of the UNIA, founder the Black Star Line and pioneer of the back-to-Africa movement.
Independent historian Colin Grant presents a new biography of Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
On 11 June 1959, some 1,200 people, black and white, accompanied his funeral cortege from the service at St Michael and All Angels Church along Ladbroke Grove and Harrow Road to the interment at Kensal Green Cemetery--the resting-place also of Marcus Mosiah Garvey who had died in the same area in 1940 (he was re-buried later in Jamaica) and Mary Seacole, the "real" mother of nursing.
Independent historian and BBC Radio script editor Colin Grant presents Negro with a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey, an in-depth biography of Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887-1940), who is perhaps best-known for his "Back to Africa" movement that sought to create an independent homeland through Pan-African emigration.
Excellent Marcus Mosiah Garvey, the founder of the largest Black movement in America and the world--have been coming here by the thousands and hundreds of thousands since the 1600s.
Bruce met Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887-1940) in New York Sometime in March or April 1916.
Chicago: Black Spear Press, 1981); The Operational Philosophy of the AFENA Mentorship Society Rites of Passage Training(Council of Independent Black Institutions); Education for Self-Reliance, Idealism to Reality: An Analysis of the Independent School Movement(Stanford, CA: Council of Independent Black Institutions, 1981), and The Legacy of The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey in the Development of Independent Black Education(Washington, D.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey is a National Hero of Jamaica, and famously called for people of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa, and for the European colonial powers to leave.