Margaret of Parma

(redirected from Margaret of Austria (1522-1583))

Margaret of Parma,

1522–86, Spanish regent of the Netherlands; illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She was married (1536) to Alessandro de' Medici (d. 1537) and (1538) to Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma. Appointed Spanish governor of the Netherlands (1559), she was restricted in her authority by a council of state headed by Cardinal GranvelleGranvelle, Antoine Perrenot de
, 1517–86, statesman in the service of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and of King Philip II of Spain; cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Charged with the difficult task of carrying out the religious policy of her half-brother Philip IIPhilip II,
1527–98, king of Spain (1556–98), king of Naples and Sicily (1554–98), and, as Philip I, king of Portugal (1580–98). Philip's Reign
..... Click the link for more information.
 of Spain, she urged and finally secured the recall of the unpopular prelate. She subsequently showed favor to the national party, but after the outbreak of violence she turned against the popular leaders (Egmont, Hoorn, and William the Silent). In 1567 the duke of AlbaAlba or Alva, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, duque de
, b. 1507 or 1508, d. 1582, Spanish general and administrator.
..... Click the link for more information.
 arrived at Brussels to suppress the opposition by force. Margaret warned Philip II against harsh measures and resigned as regent, being unable to agree with Alba. She was a woman of great ability and firmness, and her resignation was generally regretted. Margaret's son was the noted general Alessandro Farnese, duke of Parma and Piacenza.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Margaret of Parma


Born 1522 in Oudenaarde, in present-day Belgium; died Jan. 18, 1586, in Ortona, Italy. Regent for the Spanish king Philip II in the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567. The illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V, Margaret was married to the duke of Parma and Piacenza, Ottavio Farnese.

The Netherlands under Margaret of Parma were ruled de facto (until 1564) by Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle. To head off the growing bourgeois revolution (the iconoclastic uprising of 1566), she made an agreement with the opposing nobility. With the arrival of the Duke of Alba in the Netherlands, Margaret relinquished her power and moved to Italy.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.